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Ultrasound phased arrays may offer a method for non-invasive deep brain surgery through the skull. In this study a hemispherical phased array system is developed to test the feasibility of trans-skull surgery. The hemispherical shape is incorporated to maximize the penetration area on the skull surface, thus minimizing unwanted heating. Simulations of a 15(More)
Parducci et al. (Reports, 2 March 2012, p. 1083) fail to present convincing evidence for glacial survival of Pinus and Picea in northern Scandinavia. Their methodology does not exclude contamination. Additionally, they should consider the lack of suitable habitats, the apparent extinction of both taxa after deglacial warming, and alternative hypotheses for(More)
In mid to high latitudes glacial and interglacial cycles have repeatedly changed the area available for plant growth. The speed at which plants are able to colonize areas at the onset of an interglacial is hypothesized to limit their distribution ranges even today (migrational lag). If the spread of plants would have been generally slow then plant diversity(More)
Plant communities are not stable over time and biological novelty is predicted to emerge due to climate change, the introduction of exotic species and land-use change. However, the rate at which this novelty may arise over longer time periods has so far received little attention. We reconstruct the emergence of novelty in Europe for a set of baseline(More)
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