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Parducci et al. (Reports, 2 March 2012, p. 1083) fail to present convincing evidence for glacial survival of Pinus and Picea in northern Scandinavia. Their methodology does not exclude contamination. Additionally, they should consider the lack of suitable habitats, the apparent extinction of both taxa after deglacial warming, and alternative hypotheses for… (More)
We present quantitative reconstructions of regional vegetation cover in north-western Europe, western Europe north of the Alps, and eastern Europe for five time windows in the Holocene [around 6k, 3k, 0.5k, 0.2k, and 0.05k calendar years before present (bp)] at a 1° × 1° spatial scale with the objective of producing vegetation descriptions suitable for… (More)
In mid to high latitudes glacial and interglacial cycles have repeatedly changed the area available for plant growth. The speed at which plants are able to colonize areas at the onset of an interglacial is hypothesized to limit their distribution ranges even today (migrational lag). If the spread of plants would have been generally slow then plant diversity… (More)
Ecology and Quaternary palaeoecology have largely developed as parallel disciplines. Although both pursue related questions, information exchange is often hampered by particularities of the palaeoecological data and a communicational gap has been perceived between the disciplines. Based on selected topics and developments mainly in Quaternary palaeoecology,… (More)
Plant communities are not stable over time and biological novelty is predicted to emerge due to climate change, the introduction of exotic species and land-use change. However, the rate at which this novelty may arise over longer time periods has so far received little attention. We reconstruct the emergence of novelty in Europe for a set of baseline… (More)
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole may cause life-threatening reactions and even death, but such reactions are rare and do not detract from its usefulness. As with any therapy, however, caution should be observed in its use in children, and especially in the elderly.