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When humans are exposed to hypoxia, systemic and intracellular changes operate together to minimise hypoxic injury and restore adequate oxygenation. Emerging evidence indicates that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors plays a central regulatory role in these homeostatic changes at both the systemic and cellular levels. HIF was(More)
Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension. Gene expression activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is central to this process. The oxygen-sensing iron-dependent dioxygenase enzymes that regulate HIF are highly sensitive to varying iron availability. It is unknown whether iron similarly influences the pulmonary(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs; isoforms HIF-1α, HIF-2α, HIF-3α) mediate many responses to hypoxia. Their regulation is principally by oxygen-dependent degradation, which is initiated by hydroxylation of specific proline residues followed by binding of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein. Chuvash polycythemia is a disorder with elevated HIF. It arises(More)
BACKGROUND The von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein-hypoxia-inducible factor (VHL-HIF) pathway has attracted widespread medical interest as a transcriptional system controlling cellular responses to hypoxia, yet insights into its role in systemic human physiology remain limited. Chuvash polycythaemia has recently been defined as a new form of(More)
Oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by a set of closely related prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHD1, 2 and 3) regulates a range of transcriptional responses to hypoxia. This raises important questions about the role of these oxygen-sensing enzymes in integrative physiology. We investigated the effect of both genetic(More)
The effects of hypoxia on gene transcription are mainly mediated by a transcription factor complex termed hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Genetic manipulation of animals and studies of humans with rare hereditary disease have shown that modifying the HIF pathway affects systems-level physiological responses to hypoxia. It is, however, an open question(More)
Pulmonary ventilation and pulmonary arterial pressure both rise progressively during the first few hours of human acclimatization to hypoxia. These responses are highly variable between individuals, but the origin of this variability is unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether the variabilities between different measures of response to sustained(More)
Many applications of clustering require the use of normalized data, such as text or mass spectra mining. The spherical K-means algorithm [6], an adaptation of the traditional K-means algorithm, is highly useful for data of this kind because it produces normalized cluster centers. The K-medians clustering algorithm is also an important clustering tool(More)
Graphene is a basic building block for many known and emerging carbon-based materials whose properties largely depend on the way how graphene is structured at the nanoscale. Synthesis of novel three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures of graphene would be an important advance for fundamental research and various applications. In this paper, we discuss the(More)