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When humans are exposed to hypoxia, systemic and intracellular changes operate together to minimise hypoxic injury and restore adequate oxygenation. Emerging evidence indicates that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors plays a central regulatory role in these homeostatic changes at both the systemic and cellular levels. HIF was(More)
Intracellular responses to hypoxia are coordinated by the von Hippel-Lindau--hypoxia-inducible factor (VHL-HIF) transcriptional system. This study investigated the potential role of the VHL-HIF pathway in human systems-level physiology. Patients diagnosed with Chuvash polycythaemia, a rare disorder in which VHL signalling is specifically impaired, were(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors directs a coordinated cellular response to hypoxia that includes the transcriptional regulation of a number of metabolic enzymes. Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive human disorder in which the regulatory degradation of HIF is impaired, resulting in elevated levels of HIF at(More)
OBJECTIVES Hydropneumothorax (HPTX) is recognized as a potential complication of percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL), particularly with supracostal access. Postoperative chest radiography (CXR) is routinely used to evaluate the chest after PCNL. We prospectively compared the sensitivity of intraoperative chest fluoroscopy with immediate postoperative(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs; isoforms HIF-1α, HIF-2α, HIF-3α) mediate many responses to hypoxia. Their regulation is principally by oxygen-dependent degradation, which is initiated by hydroxylation of specific proline residues followed by binding of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein. Chuvash polycythemia is a disorder with elevated HIF. It arises(More)
CONTEXT Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension in respiratory disease and at high altitude. Recent work has established that the effect of hypoxia on pulmonary arterial pressure may depend on iron status, possibly acting through the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor, but the pathophysiological and clinical importance of this(More)
Hypoxia is a major cause of pulmonary hypertension. Gene expression activated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is central to this process. The oxygen-sensing iron-dependent dioxygenase enzymes that regulate HIF are highly sensitive to varying iron availability. It is unknown whether iron similarly influences the pulmonary(More)
An important goal in studying both human intelligence and artificial intelligence is to understand how a natural or an artificial learning system deals with the uncertainty and ambiguity of the real world. For a natural intelligence system such as a human toddler, the relevant aspects in a learning environment are only those that make contact with the(More)
PURPOSE The authors of this guideline reviewed the urologic trauma literature to guide clinicians in the appropriate methods of evaluation and management of genitourinary injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic review of the literature using the MEDLINE® and EMBASE databases (search dates 1/1/90-9/19/12) was conducted to identify peer-reviewed(More)