Learn More
In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix ATH1 arrays was used to identify discriminating responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to five herbicides, which contain active ingredients targeting two different branches of amino acid biosynthesis. One herbicide contained glyphosate, which targets 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase(More)
ABSTRACT While it is generally accepted that dense stands of plants exacerbate epidemics caused by foliar pathogens, there is little experimental evidence to support this view. We grew model plant communities consisting of wheat and wild oats at different densities and proportions and exposed these communities to Puccinia recondita to induce wheat leaf(More)
In the United States, the US EPA has the responsibility for the registration of pesticides. For the protection of nontarget terrestrial plants this requires two simple greenhouse tests (seedling emergence and vegetative vigor), each done with ten species grown individually. Indications of unacceptable effects levels equivalent to environmental exposure can(More)
The relative sensitivity of 17 noncrop plant species from Oregon's Willamette Valley was determined in response to glyphosate, tribenuron methyl (tribenuron), and fluazifop-p-butyl (fluazifop) herbicides. For glyphosate, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca arundinacea, Madia elegans, Potentilla gracilis, and Ranunculus occidentalis were the most sensitive species,(More)
Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and(More)
Crops engineered to contain genes for tolerance to multiple herbicides may be treated with several herbicides to manage weeds resistant to each herbicide. Thus, nearby non-target plants may be subjected to increased exposure to several herbicides used in combination. Of particular concern are native plants, as well as adjacent crops which have not been(More)
Current phytotoxicity plant test protocols for US pesticide registration require testing for effects on seedling emergence and early growth without regard to other important factors, such as plant reproduction. Yield and quality reduction can have significant economic and ecological effects. Therefore, field trials were conducted to determine if potato(More)
Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting individual species and plant communities. To determine the potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, small plant community plots were constructed using 9 perennial species found in different Willamette Valley (OR, USA) grassland habitats. Studies were conducted at 2(More)
In many countries, numerous tests are required as part of the risk assessment process before chemical registration to protect human health and the environment from unintended effects of chemical releases. Most of these tests are not based on ecological or environmental relevance but, rather, on consistent performance in the laboratory. A conceptual approach(More)