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Neoplasms are thought to progress to cancer through genetic instability generating cellular diversity and clonal expansions driven by selection for mutations in cancer genes. Despite advances in the study of molecular biology of cancer genes, relatively little is known about evolutionary mechanisms that drive neoplastic progression. It is unknown, for(More)
Size changes in microsatellite sequences have been detected in many types of cancer, but the influence of this form of genetic instability on disease progression remains unclear. We determined the incidence of microsatellite instability in breast cancer by comparing PCR-amplified sequences from paraffin-embedded samples of normal and tumor tissue from(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been increasingly utilized to investigate somatic genetic abnormalities in premalignancy and cancer. LOH is a common alteration observed during cancer development, and SNP assays have been used to identify LOH at specific chromosomal regions. The design of such studies requires consideration of the resolution for(More)
It has been hypothesized that neoplastic progression develops as a consequence of an acquired genetic instability and the subsequent evolution of clonal populations with accumulated genetic errors. Accordingly, human cancers and some premalignant lesions contain multiple genetic abnormalities not present in the normal tissues from which the neoplasms arose.(More)
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer of which the incidence has been increasing at an alarming rate in Western countries. p16(INK4a) lesions occur frequently in esophageal adenocarcinomas but their role in neoplastic progression is not well understood. We detected 9p21 loss of heterozygosity, p16 CpG(More)
Amplification of genes involved in signal transduction and cell cycle control occurs in a significant fraction of human cancers. Loss of p53 function has been proposed to enable cells with gene amplification to arise spontaneously during growth in vitro. However, this conclusion derives from studies employing the UMP synthesis inhibitor(More)
PURPOSE Chromosomal instability, as assessed by many techniques, including DNA content aneuploidy, loss of heterozygosity, and comparative genomic hybridization, has consistently been reported to be common in cancer and rare in normal tissues. Recently, a panel of chromosome instability biomarkers, including loss of heterozygosity and DNA content, has been(More)
There is debate in the literature over the relative importance of genetic instability and clonal expansion during progression to cancer. Barrett's esophagus is a uniquely suited model to investigate neoplastic progression prospectively because periodic endoscopic biopsy surveillance is recommended for early detection of esophageal adenocarcinoma. We(More)
Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a common genetic lesion found in many human neoplasms. Extending investigation of LOH to large-scale clinical and public health science studies has proven difficult because of the small size and cellular and genetic heterogeneity of human neoplasms, in addition to the challenges associated with increasing throughput. Our(More)