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Six per cent of child in a sample of 111 children who were adopted into U.K. families from Romania, and who were systematically assessed at the ages of 4 and 6 years, showed autistic-like patterns of behaviour. A further 6% showed milder (usually isolated) autistic features. Such autistic characteristics were not found in a similarly studied sample of 52(More)
BACKGROUND Postnatal and antenatal depression are a focus of considerable clinical and research attention, but little is known about the patterns of anxiety across this period. METHODS Self-reported anxiety and depression were assessed at 18 and 32 weeks gestation and 8 weeks and 8 months postnatally in a prospective longitudinal study of a community(More)
This study examined links between processes of establishing autonomy and relatedness in adolescent-family interactions and adolescents' psychosocial development. Adolescents in 2-parent families and their parents were observed in a revealed-differences interaction task when adolescents were 14, and adolescents' ego development and self-esteem were assessed(More)
The adjustment and prosocial behaviour of 4-year-old children and their older siblings growing up in step-parent or single-parent families, or with two biological parents, was investigated within a longitudinal community study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). Mean differences in mothers' perception of adjustment were found(More)
BACKGROUND Animal experiments suggest that maternal stress and anxiety during pregnancy have long-term effects on the behaviour of the offspring. AIMS To test the hypothesis that antenatal maternal anxiety predicts behavioural problems at age 4 years. METHOD Data were collected on multiple antenatal and postnatal assessments of maternal anxiety and(More)
BACKGROUND Animal studies suggest that prenatal stress is associated with long-term disturbance in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, but evidence in humans is lacking. This study examined the long-term association between prenatal anxiety and measures of diurnal cortisol at age 10 years. METHODS Measures of cortisol were collected at(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the hypothesis that the effects of postnatal depression on children's behavioral/emotional problems are explained by antenatal maternal mood. METHOD The current study investigated this hypothesis in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective, community-based study that has followed a cohort of women since(More)
BACKGROUND Raised maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes for her child. The mechanisms underlying this are not known but animal studies suggest prenatal stress may alter the function of the placenta. Here we determined whether maternal prenatal anxiety was associated with a downregulation(More)
Elevated rates of attention deficit and overactivity have been noted previously in samples of institution-reared children. This study examined the hypothesis that inattention/overactivity(I/O) might constitute a specific deprivation syndrome. One hundred and sixty five children adopted at varying ages (e.g., 0-42 months of age) into the UK following severe(More)
BACKGROUND The sequelae of profound early privation are varied. AIMS To delineate the behavioural patterns that are specifically associated with institutional privation. METHOD A group of 165 children adopted from Romania before the age of 42 months were compared at 4 years and 6 years with 52 non-deprived UK children adopted in infancy. Dysfunction was(More)