Learn More
The transposon-like elements TBE1, Tec1, and Tec2 of hypotrichous ciliated protozoa appear to encode a protein that belongs to the IS630-Tc1 family of transposases. The Anabaena IS895 transposase also is placed in this family. We note that most family members transpose into the dinucleotide target, TA, and that members with eukaryotic hosts have a tendency(More)
Mutation dictates the tempo and mode of evolution, and like all traits, the mutation rate is subject to evolutionary modification. Here, we report refined estimates of the mutation rate for a prokaryote with an exceptionally small genome and for a unicellular eukaryote with a large genome. Combined with prior results, these estimates provide the basis for a(More)
The rate at which new mutations arise in the genome is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of species. Here we describe the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a key model organism with many similarities to higher eukaryotes. We undertook an ∼1700-generation mutation accumulation (MA)(More)
Internal eliminated sequences (IESs) often interrupt ciliate genes in the silent germline nucleus but are exactly excised and eliminated from the developing somatic nucleus from which genes are then expressed. Some long IESs are transposons, supporting the hypothesis that short IESs are ancient transposon relics. In light of that hypothesis and to explore(More)
Genome-wide DNA rearrangements occur in many eukaryotes but are most exaggerated in ciliates, making them ideal model systems for epigenetic phenomena. During development of the somatic macronucleus, Oxytricha trifallax destroys 95% of its germ line, severely fragmenting its chromosomes, and then unscrambles hundreds of thousands of remaining fragments by(More)
Despite comprising much of the eukaryotic genome, few transposons are active, and they usually confer no benefit to the host. Through an exaggerated process of genome rearrangement, Oxytricha trifallax destroys 95% of its germline genome during development. This includes the elimination of all transposon DNA. We show that germline-limited transposase genes(More)
We sequenced and analyzed the subtelomeric regions of 1356 macronuclear "nanochromosomes" of the spirotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. We show that the telomeres in this species have a length of 20 nt, with minor deviations; there is no correlation between telomere lengths at the two ends of the molecule. A search for open reading frames revealed that(More)
The macronuclear genome of the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax displays an extreme and unique eukaryotic genome architecture with extensive genomic variation. During sexual genome development, the expressed, somatic macronuclear genome is whittled down to the genic portion of a small fraction (∼5%) of its precursor "silent" germline micronuclear genome by a(More)
TBE1s are "cut-and-paste" transposable elements found in high copy number in the germline genomes of the ciliates Oxytricha fallax and O. trifallax. TBE1 "family" sequence (sequence of mixed polymerase chain reaction products generated using primers that match roughly half the TBE1s in host whole-cell DNA) was obtained from both host species. Although(More)