Thomas G Brown

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Although individuals who exhibit both alcohol and cocaine dependency are seen increasingly in traditional alcoholism rehabilitation settings, their comparability with "pure" alcoholics is unclear. Sociodemographic, psychological, cognitive, and substance abuse status were, therefore, monitored in a group of alcoholics (n = 64) versus a group of cocaine(More)
Cortisol is a stress hormone mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a psychobiological marker of genetic risk for alcoholism and other high-risk behavioural characteristics. In previous work with driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) recidivists, we uncovered a significant inverse relationship between the frequency of past DUI(More)
Individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) of alcohol may be at greater risk for neurocognitive impairment because of their exposure to multiple sources of neurological risk. This could contribute to the persistence of DUI behaviour and influence the effectiveness of remedial interventions. The objectives of this study were to clarify the(More)
BACKGROUND The reconsolidation blocker propranolol abolishes alcohol and drug-seeking behavior in rodents and attenuates conditioned emotional responses to drug-cues in humans in experimental settings. This suggests a role for its use in the treatment of substance dependence. In this translational pilot study, we explored the feasibility and efficacy of(More)
BACKGROUND Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD) and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality,(More)
Driving while impaired (DWI) is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time(More)
OBJECTIVES Impaired decision making is seen in several problem behaviours including alcoholism and problem gambling. Decision-making style may contribute to driving while impaired with alcohol (DWI) in some offenders as well. The Somatic Marker Framework theorizes that decision making is the product of two interacting affective neural systems, an impulsive,(More)
OBJECTIVES Our objectives were as follows: 1) to survey the literature on motivational interviewing (MI), "a client-centered yet directive method for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving client ambivalence" and a well-established method of brief intervention, especially in the field of addictions treatment; 2) to review(More)
The heart rate (HR) responses to verbal and nonverbal mental arithmetic tasks were studied in twenty undergraduate males. The two problem-sets were presented in counterbalanced order to the subjects. Greater HR responses to verbal, in contrast to nonverbal, arithmetic were only observed when the verbal arithmetic task was presented first. The peak (maximal)(More)
Some sex differences have been detected in driving while impaired by alcohol (DWI) offenders. However, understanding of the key factors contributing to DWI among male and female drivers remains elusive, limiting development of targeted interventions. Sex-based neurocognitive analyses could provide the much-needed insight. We examined whether male DWI(More)