Thomas Gärtner

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As most ‘real-world’ data is structured, research in kernel methods has begun investigating kernels for various kinds of structured data. One of the most widely used tools for modeling structured data are graphs. An interesting and important challenge is thus to investigate kernels on instances that are represented by graphs. So far, only very specific(More)
Kernel methods in general and support vector machines in particular have been successful in various learning tasks on data represented in a single table. Much 'real-world' data, however, is structured - it has no natural representation in a single table. Usually, to apply kernel methods to 'real-world' data, extensive pre-processing is performed to embed(More)
Recently, kernel methods have become a popular tool for machine learning and data mining. As most ‘real-world’ data is structured, research in kernel methods has begun investigating kernels for various kinds of structured data. One of the most widely used tools for modeling structured data are graphs. In this paper we study the trade-off between(More)
With applications in biology, the world-wide web, and several other areas, mining of graph-structured objects has received significant interest recently. One of the major research directions in this field is concerned with predictive data mining in graph databases where each instance is represented by a graph. Some of the proposed approaches for this task(More)
This paper brings together two strands of machine learning of increasing importance: kernel methods and highly structured data. We propose a general method for constructing a kernel following the syntactic structure of the data, as defined by its type signature in a higher-order logic. Our main theoretical result is the positive definiteness of any kernel(More)
In many applications, unlabelled examples are inexpensive and easy to obtain. Semi-supervised approaches try to utilise such examples to reduce the predictive error. In this paper, we investigate a semi-supervised least squares regression algorithm based on the co-learning approach. Similar to other semi-supervised algorithms, our base algorithm has cubic(More)
RRL is a relational reinforcement learning system based on Q-learning in relational state-action spaces. It aims to enable agents to learn how to act in an environment that has no natural representation as a tuple of constants. For relational reinforcement learning, the learning algorithm used to approximate the mapping between state-action pairs and their(More)
We present several exact and highly scalable local pattern sampling algorithms. They can be used as an alternative to exhaustive local pattern discovery methods (e.g, frequent set mining or optimistic-estimator-based subgroup discovery) and can substantially improve efficiency as well as controllability of pattern discovery processes. While previous(More)
PURPOSE We examined the sensitivity and specificity of Hexvix (PhotoCure ASA, Oslo, Norway) hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy in patients with superficial bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients (38 men and 14 women) with a mean age of 72 years were investigated. HAL hydrochloride (100 mg dissolved in 50 ml phosphate(More)