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Multiple isotope effects have been measured for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl formate in 0.5 M HCl at 20 degrees C. The isotope effects in the present investigation include the carbonyl carbon (13k = 1.028 +/- 0.001), the carbonyl oxygen (18k = 0.9945 +/- 0.0009), the nucleophile oxygen (18k = 0.995 +/- 0.001), and the formyl hydrogen ((D)k = 0.81(More)
Time bound sequences are constraints deemed necessary to ensure product quality and avoid yield loss due to time dependent effects. Although they are commonly applied in production system control they cause severe logistical challenges. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of time constraints in combination with batching on a real metallization work(More)