Thomas Freitag

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Ammonia oxidation, as the first step in the nitrification process, plays a central role in the global cycling of nitrogen. Although bacteria are traditionally considered to be responsible for ammonia oxidation, a role for archaea has been suggested by data from metagenomic studies and by the isolation of a marine, autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing,(More)
To determine whether the distribution of estuarine ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was influenced by salinity, the community structure of betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOB) was characterized along a salinity gradient in sediments of the Ythan estuary, on the east coast of Scotland, UK, by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning and(More)
The transcription dynamics of subunit A of the key gene in methanogenesis (methyl coenzyme M reductase; mcrA) was studied to evaluate the relationship between process rate (methanogenesis) and gene transcription dynamics in a peat soil ecosystem. Soil methanogen process rates were determined during incubation of peat slurries at temperatures from 4 to 37(More)
The paradigm that soil microbial communities, being very diverse, have high functional redundancy levels, so that erosion of microbial diversity is less important for ecosystem functioning than erosion of plant or animal diversity, is often taken for granted. However, this has only been demonstrated for decomposition/respiration functions, performed by a(More)
To assess links between the diversity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in agricultural grassland soils and inorganic N fertilizer management, NOB communities in fertilized and unfertilized soils were characterized by analysis of clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Previously uncharacterized(More)
The factors driving the abundance and community composition of soil microbial communities provide fundamental knowledge on the maintenance of biodiversity and the ecosystem services they underpin. Several studies have suggested that microbial communities are spatially organized, including functional groups and much of the observed variation is explained by(More)
Molecular approaches have revealed considerable diversity and uncultured novelty in natural prokaryotic populations, but not direct links between the new genotypes detected and ecosystem processes. Here we describe the influence of the structure of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on nitrogen cycling in microcosms containing natural and managed(More)
The relationship between biogeochemical process rates and microbial functional activity was investigated by analysis of the transcriptional dynamics of the key functional genes for methanogenesis (methyl coenzyme M reductase; mcrA) and methane oxidation (particulate methane monooxygenase; pmoA) and in situ methane flux at two peat soil field sites with(More)
The potential dependence of virus populations on soil types was examined by electron microscopy, and the total abundance of virus particles in four soil types was similar to that previously observed in soil samples. The four soil types examined differed in the relative abundances of four morphological groups of viruses. Machair, a unique type of coastal(More)
The response of natural microbial communities to environmental change can be assessed by determining DNA- or RNA-targeted changes in relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences by using fingerprinting techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DNA-DGGE and RNA-DGGE, respectively) or by stable isotope probing (SIP) of 16S rRNA genes(More)