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Arthropods and pathogens damage leaves in natural ecosystems and may reduce photosynthesis at some distance away from directly injured tissue. We quantified the indirect effects of naturally occurring biotic damage on leaf-level photosystem II operating efficiency (Phi(PSII)) of 11 understory hardwood tree species using chlorophyll fluorescence and thermal(More)
Many physiological processes are spatially variable across leaf surfaces. While maps of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, gene expression, water transport, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for individual leaves are readily obtained, analytical methods for quantifying spatial heterogeneity and combining information gathered from the(More)
Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing(More)
1.Labelling plants with (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes usually require cultivation of plants in isotopically enriched soil and gas-tight labelling chambers - both approaches are not suitable if one aims to investigate in situ species interactions in real plant communities. 2.In this greenhouse experiment, we tested a labelling method in which dual-labelled(More)
Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants(More)
Biodiversity loss and species invasions are among the most important human-induced global changes. Moreover, these two processes are interlinked as ecosystem invasibility is considered to increase with decreasing biodiversity. In temperate grasslands, earthworms serve as important ecosystem engineers making up the majority of soil faunal biomass. Herbivore(More)