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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. METHODS In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1-positive and the other was HIV-1-negative; 54% of the subjects were from Africa, and 50% of infected(More)
We show how plots based on the residuals from a proportional hazards model may be used to reveal the correct functional form for covariates in the model. A smoothed plot of the martingale residues was suggested for this purpose by Therneau, Grambsch, and Fleming (1990, Biometrika 77, 147-160); however, its consistency required that the covariates be(More)
Dos/Gab family scaffolding adapters (Dos, Gab1, Gab2) bind several signal relay molecules, including the protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp-2 and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K); they are also implicated in growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptor signal transduction. Mice lacking Gab1 die during embryogenesis and show defective responses to(More)
One of the most important considerations in designing clinical trials is the choice of outcome measures. These outcome measures could be clinically meaningful endpoints that are direct measures of how patients feel, function, and survive. Alternatively, indirect measures, such as biomarkers that include physical signs of disease, laboratory measures, and(More)
  • L A Guay, P Musoke, T Fleming, D Bagenda, M Allen, C Nakabiito +13 others
  • 1999
BACKGROUND The AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 zidovudine prophylaxis regimen for HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their babies has been associated with a significant decrease in vertical HIV-1 transmission in non-breastfeeding women in developed countries. We compared the safety and efficacy of short-course nevirapine or zidovudine during labour(More)
Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation prolongs survival in ALS but its effect on quality of life is unknown. The authors prospectively studied quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire in a cohort of 16 ventilated patients with ALS. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improved scores in the "Vitality" domain by as much as 25%, for periods of(More)
Chronic cough is a common condition that presents to both primary and secondary care. Assessment and management are hampered by the absence of well-validated outcome measures. The present study comprises the validation of the Leicester Cough Monitor (LCM), an automated sound-based ambulatory cough monitor. Cough frequency was measured with the LCM and(More)
The interest in being able to interpret and report results in clinical trials as being favorable is pervasive throughout health care research. This important source of bias needs to be recognized, and approaches need to be implemented to effectively address it. The prespecified primary analyses of the primary and secondary end points of a clinical trial(More)