Thomas F. Spande

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A diverse array of biologically active, lipid-soluble alkaloids have been discovered in amphibian skin. Such alkaloids include the following: the steroidal samandarines from salamanders, the batrachotoxins, histrionicotoxins, gephyrotoxins, and epibatidine from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), the pumiliotoxins, allopumiliotoxins,(More)
A total of 232 alkaloids, representing 21 structural classes were detected in skin extracts from the dendrobatid poison frog Oophaga pumilio, collected from 53 different populations from over 30 years of research. The highly toxic pumiliotoxins and allopumiliotoxins, along with 5,8-disubstitiuted and 5,6,8-trisubstituted indolizidines, all of which are(More)
Australian myobatrachid frogs of the genus Pseudophryne have only two classes of alkaloids in skin extracts, pseudophrynamines (PSs) and pumiliotoxins (PTXs). The former are unique to such Australian frogs, while the PTXs occur worldwide in all other genera of frogs/toads that contain lipophilic alkaloids. The major alkaloid of wild-caught frogs from one(More)
Acetate accumulation is a common problem observed in aerobic high cell density Escherichia coli cultures. A previous report has hypothesized that the glyoxylate shunt is active in a low acetate producer, E. coli BL21, and inactive in a high acetate producer, JM109. To further investigate this hypothesis, we now develop a model for the incorporation of (13)C(More)
Alkaloids in the skin glands of poison frogs serve as a chemical defense against predation, and almost all of these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from dietary arthropods. Certain alkaloid-containing ants have been considered the primary dietary source, but dietary sources for the majority of alkaloids remain unknown. Herein we report the presence of(More)
The skin of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) contains a wide variety of alkaloids that presumably serve a defensive role. These alkaloids persist for years in captivity, but are not present in captive-raised frogs. Alkaloids fed to poison frogs (Dendrobates, Phyllobates, Epipedobates) are readily accumulated into skin, where they remain for months. The process(More)
A wide range of alkaloids, many of which are unknown elsewhere in nature, occur in skin of frogs. Major classes of such alkaloids in dendrobatid frogs are the batrachotoxins, pumiliotoxins, histrionicotoxins, gephyrotoxins, and decahydroquinolines. Such alkaloids are absent in skin of frogs (Dendrobates auratus) raised in Panama on wingless fruit flies in(More)
Herein we review what is known about the chemical ecology of poison frogs with a focus on dendrobatid poison frogs. While five anuran families are known to have an alkaloid-derived chemical defense, the dendrobatids have been studied in greatest detail and provides chemical ecologists with a complex model system for understanding how chemical defenses(More)
Nearly 500 alkaloids have been detected in skin extracts from frogs of the family Dendrobatidae. All seem to have been sequestered unchanged into skin glands from alkaloid-containing arthropods. Ants, beetles, and millipedes seem to be the source of decahydroquinolines, certain izidines, coccinellines, and spiropyrrolizidine oximes. But the dietary source(More)
Skins of bufonid toads of the genus Melanophryniscus contain several classes of alkaloids: decahydroquinolines, pumiliotoxins, allopumiliotoxins, homopumiliotoxins, both 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, 3,5-disubstituted pyrrolizidines, and a 1,4-disubstituted quinolizidine. Tricyclic alkaloids, including precoccinelline [193A] and alkaloid 236, an(More)