Thomas F Gajewski

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Most tumor cells express antigens that can mediate recognition by host CD8(+) T cells. Cancers that are detected clinically must have evaded antitumor immune responses to grow progressively. Recent work has suggested two broad categories of tumor escape based on cellular and molecular characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. One major subset shows a T(More)
T cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with favorable patient outcomes, yet the mechanisms underlying variable immune responses between individuals are not well understood. One possible modulator could be the intestinal microbiota. We compared melanoma growth in mice harboring distinct commensal microbiota and observed differences in spontaneous(More)
Tumor escape from immune-mediated destruction has been associated with immunosuppressive mechanisms that inhibit T cell activation. Although evidence for an active immune response, including infiltration with CD8(+) T cells, can be found in a subset of patients, those tumors are nonetheless not immunologically rejected. In the current report, we show that(More)
The human MAGE-3 gene is expressed in many tumors of several histological types but it is silent in normal tissues, with the exception of testis. Antigens encoded by MAGE-3 may, therefore, be useful targets for specific anti-tumor immunization of cancer patients. We reported previously that MAGE-3 codes for an antigenic peptide recognized on a melanoma cell(More)
Melanoma treatment is being revolutionized by the development of effective immunotherapeutic approaches. These strategies include blockade of immune-inhibitory receptors on activated T cells; for example, using monoclonal antibodies against CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 (refs 3-5). However, only a subset of patients responds to these treatments, and data suggest(More)
Despite lack of tumor control in many models, spontaneous T cell priming occurs frequently in response to a growing tumor. However, the innate immune mechanisms that promote natural antitumor T cell responses are undefined. In human metastatic melanoma, there was a correlation between a type I interferon (IFN) transcriptional profile and T cell markers in(More)
Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases(More)
Spontaneous tumor-initiated T cell priming is dependent on IFN-β production by tumor-resident dendritic cells. On the basis of recent observations indicating that IFN-β expression was dependent upon activation of the host STING pathway, we hypothesized that direct engagement of STING through intratumoral (IT) administration of specific agonists would result(More)
Helper T (Th) cell differentiation is highly regulated by cytokines but initiated by mitogens. By examining gene expression in discrete generations of dividing cells, we have delineated the relationship between proliferation and differentiation. Initial expression of IL-2 is cell cycle-independent, whereas effector cytokine expression is cell(More)
Despite the frequent detection of circulating tumor antigen-specific T cells, either spontaneously or following active immunization or adoptive transfer, immune-mediated cancer regression occurs only in the minority of patients. One theoretical rate-limiting step is whether effector T cells successfully migrate into metastatic tumor sites. Affymetrix gene(More)