Thomas F Cunningham

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Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on the short-term retention of order information. A partial report procedure was coupled with the distractor paradigm to vary which one of two 4-letter sequences was tested after a digit-filled retention interval. Repeatedly presenting the stimulus but not its testing did not increase recall, but recall did(More)
In two experiments, subjects recalled one of two letter sequences following a digit-filled retention interval. Recall performance was increased by precues informing subjects which letter sequence would be tested, and the cuing advantage remained throughout 60-digit retention intervals. No improvement was found, however, for cues occurring after the letters(More)
The hypothesis that familial sinistrality (FS) might be a useful variable for differentiating between pathological and natural left-handers was explored. A comparison of the incidence of FS in mentally retarded and nonretarded samples indicated that a positive history of familial sinistrality (FS+) was significantly more likely to occur in mildly retarded(More)
In two experiments, we examined short-term recall of order information using a partial-report distractor task. We manipulated the characteristics of a single letter in one of two four-letter segments. Participants knew in advance the identity of the letters in each segment. We made a single letter distinctive at presentation either by printing it in red or(More)
In two experiments, subjects recalled one of two letter segments following a digit-filled retention interval. In Experiment 1, recall expectancy was manipulated by using precues that correctly informed or misinformed subjects concerning which letter segment would be tested for recall. In Experiment 2, item importance was varied by precuing one segment as(More)
In Experiments 1 and 2 first-, third-, and seventh-grade children and college subjects circled the letter a while reading passages constructed of words familiar to first graders. First graders made more errors on the letter a embedded in a word than on the word a, whereas the converse was true of the other age groups. In Experiments 3 and 4 first-, second-,(More)
College students searched for either h or the in prose passages in which every h occurred in the test word the. In Experiment 1, passage versions differed in that the critical noun phrases were either the alone (i.e., in citation form as a noun referring to itself) or "the definite article." Many more detection errors occurred for letter than word target(More)
Adults recalled the order of the letters in one of two four-letter segments following a distractor task. They knew in advance the identity of the letters in each segment. A letter was made distinctive by replacing it with a red dash. This unusual form of distinctiveness generally had negative effects on recall of both the segment containing the missing(More)
We examined the influence of encoding and generation processes on distinctiveness, isolation, and background effects in short-term recall of order information. Adults recalled the order of letters in one of two segments following a distractor task, knowing in advance the identity of the letters. A distinctive letter was one that was either in red or absent(More)
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