Thomas Efferth

Learn More
A profound cytotoxic action of the antimalarial, artesunate (ART), was identified against 55 cancer cell lines of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50 values) for ART correlated significantly to the cell doubling times (P = 0.00132) and the portion of cells in the G0/G1 (P = 0.02244) or S cell cycle phases (P =(More)
OBJECTIVES The safety and effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is challenged by viral resistance to antiretrovirals and the frequent occurrence of drug interactions which may limit the access of these drugs to the target sites. In particular, drug distribution and elimination may be modified by active efflux transporters. While(More)
The antimalarial agent artesunate (ART) activates programmed cell death (PCD) in cancer cells in a manner dependent on the presence of iron and the generation of reactive oxygen species. In malaria parasites, ART cytotoxicity originates from interactions with heme-derived iron within the food vacuole. The analogous digestive compartment of mammalian cells,(More)
A key issue in the treatment of many cancers is the development of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance mechanisms are numerous and complex. One of them is mediated by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters able to efflux drugs out of the tumor cell. The last two decades have seen notable growth of knowledge concerning the(More)
Drugs derived from natural resources represent a significant segment of the pharmaceutical market as compared to randomly synthesized compounds. It is a goal of drug development programs to design selective ligands that act on single disease targets to obtain highly effective and safe drugs with low side effects. Although this strategy was successful for(More)
The antimalarial artemisinins also reveal profound cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Artemisinins harbor an endoperoxide bridge whose cleavage results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or artemisinin carbon-centered free radicals. Established cancer drugs such as anthracyclines also form ROS and free radicals that are responsible(More)
Artesunate (ART) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. ART reveals remarkable activity against otherwise multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. ART has now been analyzed for its anti-cancer activity against 55 cell lines of the Developmental Therapeutics Program of(More)
As long as no effective malaria vaccine is available, chemotherapy belongs to the most important weapons fighting malaria. One of the most promising new drug developments is the sesquiterpene artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives, e.g., artemether, arteether, and sodium artesunate. Large clinical studies and meta-analyses did not show serious side effects,(More)
Artesunate (ART) is a derivative of artemisinin, the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. Artesunate is approved for the treatment of multidrug-resistant malaria and has an excellent safety profile. It has been shown that Artesunate, apart from its anti-malarial activity, has cytotoxic effects on a number of human cancer cell lines,(More)
Iron(II) heme-mediated activation of the peroxide bond of artemisinins is thought to generate the radical oxygen species responsible for their antimalarial activity. We analyzed the role of ferrous iron in the cytotoxicity of artemisinins toward tumor cells. Iron(II)-glycine sulfate (Ferrosanol) and transferrin increased the cytotoxicity of free artesunate,(More)