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[1] The transient ELF ($50 – 5000 Hz) magnetic field radiated by lightning discharges across North America was continuously measured at Duke University during the summer of 2000. In total, 881 sprite-associated lightning discharges over 17 days were analyzed. We report in detail on 76 sprites for which we could reliably determine the lightning charge moment(More)
Framing is the process by which a communication source constructs and defines a social or political issue for its audience. While many observers of political communication and the mass media have discussed framing, few have explicitly described how framing affects public opinion. In this paper we offer a theory of framing effects, with a specific focus on(More)
[1] We report intensified high speed video observations of two mesospheric transient luminous events acquired at 5000 and 7200 frames per second. Downward streamers appear to initiate either spontaneously or from brightening inhomogeneities at the bottom of a halo, and branch as they propagate downward. Simultaneously, a brighter column expands upward and(More)
In previous studies, we found that chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment-a model of ethanol consumption in which animals are exposed to and withdrawn from intoxicating levels of ethanol on a daily basis-produces neuroadaptive changes in hippocampal area CA1 excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Synaptic responses mediated by(More)
People routinely adjust their subjective judgment standards as they evaluate members of stereotyped social groups. Such shifts are less likely to occur, however, when judgments are made on stable, "objective" response scales. In 3 studies, subjects judged a series of targets with respect to a number of gender-relevant attributes (e.g. t height, weight, and(More)
Gigantic jets are the clearest manifestation of direct electrical coupling between tropospheric thunderstorms and the iono-sphere. They are leaders 1–3 that emerge from electrical breakdown near the top of thunderstorms 4 and extend all the way to the lower edge of the ionosphere near 90 km altitude 5. 9 , but others have not been connected to(More)
The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important mediator of inflammatory and immune responses in the periphery. IL-6 is produced in the periphery and acts systemically to induce growth and differentiation of cells in the immune and hematopoietic systems and to induce and coordinate the different elements of the acute-phase response. In addition to these(More)
We investigated the neuroadaptive changes in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus as a result of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed daily (14 h) to ethanol vapors (blood alcohol levels = 150-200 mg%) for 12-14 days, and synaptic field potentials elicited by Schaffer collateral stimulation were compared(More)
Using electrophysiological and biochemical approaches, we investigated the effects of chronic, intermittent ethanol (CIE) treatment on activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), also known as extracellular signal regulated protein kinase 1 and 2. In hippocampal slices taken from control rats, brief high-frequency stimulation to Schaffer(More)
Severe stress elevates plasma and CNS levels of endogenous neuroactive steroids that can contribute to the influence of stress on memory formation. Among the neuroactive steroids, pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) reportedly strengthens memories and is readily available as a memory-enhancing supplement. PREGS actions on memory may reflect its ability to produce(More)