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Active resolution of acute inflammation is a previously unrecognized interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Once thought to be a passive process, the resolution of inflammation is now shown to involve active biochemical programmes that enable inflamed tissues to return to homeostasis. This Review presents new cellular and molecular mechanisms for(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal in determining the class of an adaptive immune response. However, the molecular mechanisms within DCs that determine this decision-making process are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that distinct Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands instruct human DCs to induce distinct Th cell responses by differentially modulating(More)
A study was undertaken to determine the presence of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the saliva and gingival crevicular fluid of smokers with periodontal disease. Saliva and crevicular fluid samples were obtained from 16 habitual cigarette smokers and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the presence of cotinine. Thirteen(More)
The periodontal diseases are infectious diseases caused by predominantly Gram-negative bacteria. However, as our understanding of the pathogenesis of the periodontal diseases grows, it is becoming clear that most of the tissue damage that characterizes periodontal disease is caused by the host response to infection, not by the infectious agent directly.(More)
The adaptive immune system can generate distinct classes of responses, but the mechanisms that determine this are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that different Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induce distinct dendritic cell (DC) activation and immune responses in vivo. Thus, Escherichia coli LPS (TLR-4 stimulus), activates DCs to produce(More)
Of the many palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) conditions, only Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) and Haim-Munk syndrome (HMS) are associated with premature periodontal destruction. Although both PLS and HMS share the cardinal features of PPK and severe periodontitis, a number of additional findings are reported in HMS including arachnodactyly, acro-osteolysis,(More)
There are several hypotheses proposed for the etiologic mechanisms causing periodontal diseases. These include a paradigm in which all individuals are equally susceptible to one or several pathogenic bacteria; a second paradigm that holds that all bacteria are equally virulent and that host susceptibility determines onset of disease; or a combination of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the ability of resolvin E1 (RvE1) to regulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activation of platelets via specific receptors because RvE1 reduces platelet aggregation with certain agonists, including ADP. METHODS AND RESULTS RvE1 is an eicosapentaenoic acid-derived specialized proresolving mediator generated during the resolution of(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Understanding cellular and molecular events in diabetes mellitus will identify new approaches for therapy. Immune system cells are important modulators of chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus, but the role of B cells is not adequately studied. The aim of this work was to define the function of B cells in diabetes mellitus patients(More)