Thomas E. Smithgall

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The transmembrane protein Tim-3 has been shown to negatively regulate T-cell-dependent immune responses and was recently demonstrated to be associated with the phenomenon of immune exhaustion, which can occur as a consequence of chronic viral infection. Unlike other negative regulators of T-cell function (e.g., PD-1), Tim-3 does not contain any obvious(More)
NeuroD, a vertebrate homolog of Drosophila atonal gene, plays an important role in the differentiation of neuronal precursors (Lee et al., 1995). We have investigated whether NeuroD subserves a similar function in mammalian retinal neurogenesis. Expression of NeuroD is detected in successive stages of retinal neurogenesis and is associated with a(More)
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) were originally identified as key components of signaling pathways involved in mediating responses to IFNs. Previous studies showed that the Src oncoprotein constitutively activates one STAT family member, Stat3. In this study, we investigated STAT activation in a panel of rodent fibroblast cell(More)
The dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6) functions as a feedback regulator of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to limit the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2. We have identified a small-molecule inhibitor of Dusp6-(E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI)-using a transgenic zebrafish(More)
Protein dynamics are inextricably linked to protein function but there are few techniques that allow protein dynamics to be conveniently interrogated. For example, mutations and translocations give rise to aberrant proteins such as Bcr-Abl where changes in protein conformation and dynamics are believed to result in deregulated kinase activity that provides(More)
HIV-1 Nef triggers down-regulation of cell-surface MHC-I by assembling a Src family kinase (SFK)-ZAP-70/Syk-PI3K cascade. Here, we report that chemical disruption of the Nef-SFK interaction with the small molecule inhibitor 2c blocks assembly of the multi-kinase complex and represses HIV-1-mediated MHC-I down-regulation in primary CD4(+) T-cells. 2c did not(More)
G-quadruplexes are tetraplex structures of nucleic acids that can form in G-rich sequences. Their presence and functional role have been established in telomeres, oncogene promoters and coding regions of the human chromosome. In particular, they have been proposed to be directly involved in gene regulation at the level of transcription. Because the HIV-1(More)
The HIV-1 accessory factor Nef is essential for high-titer viral replication and AIDS progression. Nef function requires interaction with many host cell proteins, including specific members of the Src kinase family. Here we explored whether Src-family kinase activation is a conserved property of Nef alleles from a wide range of primary HIV-1 isolates and(More)
BACKGROUND Programmed cell death is critical not only in adult tissue homeostasis but for embryogenesis as well. One of the earliest steps in development, formation of the proamniotic cavity, involves coordinated apoptosis of embryonic cells. Recent work from our group demonstrated that c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase activity triggers differentiation of(More)
The COOH-terminal domain of the NR2D subunit of the NMDA receptor contains proline-rich regions that show striking homology to sequences known to bind to Src homology 3 (SH3) domains. To determine whether the proline-rich region of the NR2D subunit interacts with specific SH3 domains, in vitro SH3 domain binding assays were performed. A proline-rich(More)