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NeuroD, a vertebrate homolog of Drosophila atonal gene, plays an important role in the differentiation of neuronal precursors (Lee et al., 1995). We have investigated whether NeuroD subserves a similar function in mammalian retinal neurogenesis. Expression of NeuroD is detected in successive stages of retinal neurogenesis and is associated with a(More)
The transmembrane protein Tim-3 has been shown to negatively regulate T-cell-dependent immune responses and was recently demonstrated to be associated with the phenomenon of immune exhaustion, which can occur as a consequence of chronic viral infection. Unlike other negative regulators of T-cell function (e.g., PD-1), Tim-3 does not contain any obvious(More)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are characterized by up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We previously reported that a gastrin-releasing peptide/gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP/GRPR) autocrine growth pathway is activated early in HNSCC carcinogenesis. GRP can induce rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and p42/44(More)
The dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6) functions as a feedback regulator of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to limit the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2. We have identified a small-molecule inhibitor of Dusp6-(E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (BCI)-using a transgenic zebrafish(More)
Protein dynamics are inextricably linked to protein function but there are few techniques that allow protein dynamics to be conveniently interrogated. For example, mutations and translocations give rise to aberrant proteins such as Bcr-Abl where changes in protein conformation and dynamics are believed to result in deregulated kinase activity that provides(More)
HIV-1 Nef triggers down-regulation of cell-surface MHC-I by assembling a Src family kinase (SFK)-ZAP-70/Syk-PI3K cascade. Here, we report that chemical disruption of the Nef-SFK interaction with the small molecule inhibitor 2c blocks assembly of the multi-kinase complex and represses HIV-1-mediated MHC-I down-regulation in primary CD4(+) T-cells. 2c did not(More)
G-quadruplexes are tetraplex structures of nucleic acids that can form in G-rich sequences. Their presence and functional role have been established in telomeres, oncogene promoters and coding regions of the human chromosome. In particular, they have been proposed to be directly involved in gene regulation at the level of transcription. Because the HIV-1(More)
The c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase (Fes) has been implicated in the differentiation of vascular endothelial, myeloid hematopoietic, and neuronal cells, promoting substantial morphological changes in these cell types. The mechanism by which Fes promotes morphological aspects of cellular differentiation is unknown. Using COS-7 cells as a model system, we(More)
The human bcr gene encodes a protein with serine/threonine kinase activity, CDC24/dbl homology, a GAP domain, and an SH2-binding region. However, the precise physiological functions of BCR are unknown. Coexpression of BCR with the cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase encoded by the c-fes proto-oncogene in Sf-9 cells resulted in stable BCR-FES protein complex(More)
The HIV-1 accessory factor Nef is essential for high-titer viral replication and AIDS progression. Nef function requires interaction with many host cell proteins, including specific members of the Src kinase family. Here we explored whether Src-family kinase activation is a conserved property of Nef alleles from a wide range of primary HIV-1 isolates and(More)