Thomas E. Lipe

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Wet and dry etching is employed in the fabrication of new planar thin-film multijunction thermal converters (MJTCs) on quartz membranes and crystalline quartz chips at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The use of crystalline quartz as a material for the membrane and chip improves the performance of the MJTC in the frequency range of(More)
This paper describes a study of high-voltage thermal converters (HVTC's) at voltages above 100 V at frequencies up to 100 kHz. Techniques for the construction of HVTC's are described, and the effects of aging and dielectric loss on the resistor, changes in the timing sequence of ac-dc difference tests, relay dead-times, warmup times, and voltage level(More)
Standards based on the Josephson effect are being increasingly utilized for generation of quantum-accurate ac waveforms. These standards fall into two broad categories: those whose output is generated as a stepwise-approximated sine wave via programmable Josephson arrays and those with a true sinusoidal output generated by pulses supplied to Josephson(More)
Advanced thin film processing and packaging technologies are employed in the fabrication of new planar thin-film multijunction thermal converters. The processing, packaging, and design features build on experience gained from prior NIST demonstrations of thin-film converters with optimizations for improved sensitivity, bandwidth, manufacturability, and(More)
The NIST calibration service for ac-dc difference of thermal current converters relies on multijunction thermal converters as the primary standards, and various thermal converters and thermoelements (TEs) as the reference and working standards. Calibrations are performed by comparing the ac-dc difference of a customer's thermal current converter to the(More)
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has recently reported the first application of a quantum ac Josephson voltage standard for the calibration of thermal transfer standards in the 1- to 10-kHz frequency range. This paper describes preliminary work on extending its frequency calibration range up to 100 kHz by correcting the systematic(More)
Planar multijunction thermal converters (MJTCs) are in widespread use as standards for ac voltage metrology at frequencies up to 1 MHz. At the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we are presently using MJTCs based on glassy substrates as standards at frequencies up to 100 MHz. Although these standards have excellent characteristics at(More)
The paper summarizes results of two international comparisons relating AC-DC voltage transfer standards of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) to the standards of VSL, PTB and NIST. The first comparison was part of the CCE 92-05 Intercomparison of AC-DC Voltage Transfer Standards at HF (1-50 MHz), designated as a key comparison, with results(More)
We report on the development of thin-film multijunction thermal converters for the measurement of AC currents up to 10 A without relying on parallel current shunts. The materials and designs chosen for these devices have been optimized to provide high accuracy over a wide range of input levels and frequencies. Preliminary measurements on a 10-A chip made(More)