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Effective UV-doses were calculated based on the integrated product of the biological action spectrum (the one proposed by IEC, which extends to 400 nm, was adopted) and the spectral irradiance. The calculations include absorption and scattering of UV-radiation in the atmosphere, both for normal ozone conditions as well as for a depleted ozone layer. For(More)
Data for the incidence of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin, registered for six regions of Norway during 10 years (1976-1985), were used to evaluate the biological amplification factor Ab for induction of these cancers by sunlight. Ab is the ratio of the increment in skin cancer production to the increment in(More)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secondary ecotoxicological effects of soil amendment materials that can be added to contaminated soils in order to sequester harmful pollutants. To this end, a nonpolluted agricultural soil was amended with 0.5, 2, and 5% of the following four amendments: powder activated carbon (PAC), granular activated(More)
The effect of changes in the ozone layer on the incidence of skin cancer was explored using data for Norway. Attempts were made to arrive at a relationship between the "environmental effective UV-dose" and the skin cancer incidence. Norway is well suited for this purpose because of the large variation in the annual UV-dose from north to south. Furthermore(More)
A slight reduction of the ozone level over the northern hemisphere in the period 1969-1986 has been reported [D. Lindley, Nature (Lond.), 323: 293, 1988]. Ozone measurements performed in Oslo are in agreement with this. However, the ozone level for 1987 and 1988 was above normal, and no negative or positive trend is apparent for the last 10 years. The(More)
A field lysimeter study was carried out to investigate whether the amendment of 2% powder and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC) to a soil with moderate PAH contamination had an impact on the PAH bioaccumulation of earthworms and plants, since AC is known to be a strong sorbent for organic pollutants. Furthermore, secondary effects of AC on plants and(More)
Organic pollutants (e.g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) strongly sorb to carbonaceous sorbents such as black carbon and activated carbon (BC and AC, respectively). For a creosote-contaminated soil (Sigma15PAH 5500 mg kg(dry weight(dw))(-1)) and an urban soil with moderate PAH content (Sigma15PAH 38 mg kg(dw)(-1)), total organic carbon-water distribution(More)
Antimony (Sb) in lead bullets poses a major environmental risk in shooting range soils. Here we studied the effect of iron (Fe)-based amendments on the mobility of Sb in contaminated soil from shooting ranges in Norway. Untreated soil showed high Sb concentrations in water extracts from batch tests (0.22-1.59 mg L(-1)) and soil leachate from column tests(More)
Activated carbon (AC) amendment to polluted sediment or soil is an emerging in situ treatment technique that reduces freely dissolved porewater concentrations and subsequently reduces the ecological and human health risk of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs). An important question is the capacity of the amended AC after prolonged exposure in the field. To(More)
Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying(More)