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In skeletal muscle, Ca(2+) is implicated in contraction, and in regulation of gene expression. An alteration of [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis is responsible, at least partially, for the muscle degeneration that occurs after eccentric contractions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a disease characterized by the loss of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Using(More)
CGS 5649 B improves the learning performance of aged rats in a one-way active-avoidance situation. If, under reversed conditions, treated aged rats are also tested for passive avoidance, they show "place learning," which our findings have demonstrated to be typical of young rats. The effects of the substance are not confined to these experimental models nor(More)
In smooth muscle cells, agonists such as neurotransmitters or hormones can induce an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) via a release of intracellular stored calcium or/and an influx of extracellular calcium. The calcium entry pathway operates through a variety of plasmalemmal calcium channels which involve voltage-dependent and voltage-independent calcium channels.(More)
Many theories of memory postulate that processing of information outlasts the learning situation and involves several different physiological substrates. If such physiologically distinct mechanisms or stages of memory do in fact exist, they should be differentially affected by particular experimental manipulations. Accordingly, a selective improvement of(More)
Pulmonary hypertension, the main disease of the pulmonary circulation, is characterized by an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, involving proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena remain to be identified. In the present study, we thus(More)
Defective expression of dystrophin in muscle cells is the primary feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is accompanied by fiber necrosis and intracellular calcium mishandling. These features led to the hypothesis that dystrophin could control calcium movements. Calcium mishandling in human DMD myotubes is dependent on contraction and/or(More)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a potent pulmonary vasoconstrictor and mitogenic agent whose plasma level is increased in pulmonary hypertensive patients. Thus, we explored the signalling pathways involved in the contractile response to 5-HT in human pulmonary arteries (HPAs). Intact and beta-escin permeabilised rings from HPAs mounted in an organ(More)
The 'nootropics' are a new class of psychoactive substances that improve learning and memory. Their almost exclusive effect on memory may indicate that they act on processes specifically involved in information storage. When administered after the learning trial, these substances improve subsequent retention performance in mice, even if an interval of 8 h(More)
Oral pretreatment with aldosterone or corticosterone blocked the memory-enhancing effects of the calcium antagonist nimodipine, the ACE inhibitor captopril, the NMDA blocker CGP 37,849, and the glycine antagonist strychnine in a passive-avoidance test in mice. The memory-disturbing effects of phenobarbitone, diazepam, CGP 37,849 and scopolamine were not(More)
Pulmonary circulation could be one of the primary vascular targets of finest particles that can deeply penetrate into the lungs after inhalation. We investigated the effects of engineered nanoparticles on vasomotor responses of small intrapulmonary arteries using isometric tension measurements. Acute in vitro exposure to carbon nanoparticles (CNP)(More)