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As user-generated content and interactions have overtaken the web as the default mode of use, questions of whom and what to trust have become increasingly important. Fortunately, online social networks and social media have made it easy for users to indicate whom they trust and whom they do not. However, this does not solve the problem since each user is(More)
Synthesis of the major toxin proteins of the diarrheal pathogen, Clostridium difficile, is dependent on the activity of TcdR, an initiation (sigma) factor of RNA polymerase. The synthesis of TcdR and the activation of toxin gene expression are responsive to multiple components in the bacterium's nutritional environment, such as the presence of certain(More)
The World Wide Web has transformed into an environment where users both produce and consume information. In order to judge the validity of information, it is important to know how trustworthy its creator is. Since no individual can have direct knowledge of more than a small fraction of information authors, methods for inferring trust are needed. We propose(More)
The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile are toxins A and B. These toxins are encoded by tcdA and tcdB genes, which form a pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) together with three additional genes that have been implicated in regulation (tcdR and tcdC) and secretion (tcdE). To date, the PaLoc has always been found in the same location and is replaced in(More)
The pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile is linked to its ability to produce two toxins: TcdA and TcdB. The level of toxin synthesis is influenced by environmental signals, such as phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugars, biotin, and amino acids, especially cysteine. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cysteine-dependent repression of toxin(More)
Public-health policy makers have many tools to mitigate an epidemic's effects. Most related research focuses on the direct effects on those infected (in terms of health, life, or productivity). Interventions including treatment, prophylaxis, quarantine, and social distancing are well studied in this context. These interventions do not address indirect(More)
Finding a good clustering of vertices in a network, where vertices in the same cluster are more tightly connected than those in different clusters, is a useful, important, and well-studied task. Many clustering algorithms scale well, however they are not designed to operate upon internet-scale networks with billions of nodes or more. We study one of the(More)