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The role of gap junction channels on cardiac impulse propagation is complex. This review focuses on the differential expression of connexins in the heart and the biophysical properties of gap junction channels under normal and disease conditions. Structural determinants of impulse propagation have been gained from biochemical and immunocytochemical studies(More)
To evaluate the influence of intracellular domains of connexin (Cx) on channel transfer properties, we analyzed mouse connexin (Cx) Cx26 and Cx30, which show the most similar amino acid sequence identities within the family of gap junction proteins. These connexin genes are tightly linked on mouse chromosome 14. Functional studies were performed on(More)
AIMS Remodelling and regional gradients in expression of connexins (Cx) are thought to contribute to atrial electrical dysfunction and atrial fibrillation. We assessed the effect of interaction between Cx43, Cx40, and Cx45 on atrial cell-to-cell coupling and inward Na current (I(Na)) in engineered pairs of atrial myocytes derived from wild-type mice(More)
To characterize the role of connexin43 (Cx43) as a determinant of cardiac propagation, we synthesized strands and pairs of ventricular myocytes from germline Cx43-/- mice. The amount of Cx43, Cx45, and Cx40 in gap junctions was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Intercellular electrical conductance, gj, was measured by the(More)
The role of Ca2+ entry in determining the electrical properties of cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites and somata was investigated in cerebellar slice cultures. Immunohistofluorescence demonstrated the presence of at least three distinct types of Ca2+ channel proteins in PCs: the alpha1A subunit (P/Q type Ca2+ channel), the alpha1G subunit (T type) and(More)
Connexins (Cx) form intercellular junctional channels which are responsible for metabolic and electrical coupling. We report here on the biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of zebrafish connexin zfCx43.4, an orthologue of mammalian and avian Cx45, and the electrophysiological properties of junctional channels formed by this protein. The(More)
To investigate the ionic mechanisms controlling the dendrosomatic propagation of low-threshold Ca(2+) spikes (LTS) in Purkinje cells (PCs), somatically evoked discharges of action potentials (APs) were recorded under current-clamp conditions. The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp method was used in PCs from rat cerebellar slice cultures. Full(More)
RATIONALE Spatial heterogeneity in connexin (Cx) expression has been implicated in arrhythmogenesis. OBJECTIVE This study was performed to quantify the relation between the degree of heterogeneity in Cx43 expression and disturbances in electric propagation. METHODS AND RESULTS Cell pairs and strands composed of mixtures of Cx43(-/-) (Cx43KO) or(More)
Connexin mimetic peptides corresponding to short conserved extracellular loop sequences of connexins have been used widely as reversible inhibitors of gap junctional intercellular communication. These peptides also block movement of ATP and Ca(2+) across connexin hemichannels, i.e. hexameric channels yet to dock with partners in aligned cells and to(More)
HeLa cells expressing rat connexin43 (Cx43) and/or mouse Cx45 were studied with the dual voltage-clamp technique. Different types of cell pairs were established and their gap junction properties determined, i.e. the dependence of the instantaneous and steady-state conductances (gj,inst, gj,ss) on the transjunctional voltage (Vj) and the kinetics of(More)