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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We previously mapped a locus for a rare familial form of PD to chromosome 1p36 (PARK6). Here we show that mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1) are associated with PARK6. We have identified two homozygous mutations(More)
A characteristic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain. Although this hallmark pathology has been well described, the biological effects of plaques are poorly understood. To study the effect of amyloid plaques on axons and neuronal connectivity, we have examined the axonal projections from the entorhinal cortex(More)
The mechanisms controlling axon guidance are of fundamental importance in understanding brain development. Growing corticospinal and somatosensory axons cross the midline in the medulla to reach their targets and thus form the basis of contralateral motor control and sensory input. The motor and sensory projections appeared uncrossed in patients with(More)
The voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunit Kv1.1 is a major constituent of presynaptic A-type channels that modulate synaptic transmission in CNS neurons. Here, we show that Kv1.1-containing channels are complexed with Lgi1, the functionally unassigned product of the leucine-rich glioma inactivated gene 1 (LGI1), which is causative for an autosomal(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid-beta protein which attract dense clusters of microglial cells. Here, we analyzed amyloid plaque-associated areas in aged APP23 transgenic mice, an animal model of AD, by combining laser microdissection with microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). By comparing gene(More)
The spine apparatus is a cellular organelle that is present in many dendritic spines of excitatory neurons in the mammalian forebrain. Despite its discovery >40 years ago, the function of the spine apparatus is still unknown although calcium buffering functions as well as roles in synaptic plasticity have been proposed. We have recently shown that the(More)
Synaptic connections and fine structural characteristics of neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (NPY-i) neurons in the fascia dentata were studied using an antiserum against NPY. Normal and colchicine pretreated rats were examined to study the synaptic connections of NPY-i neurons in the normal fascia dentata. The perforant pathway and fimbria fornix were(More)
Oxidative stress and protein aggregation are biochemical hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), a frequent sporadic late-onset degenerative disorder particularly of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, resulting in impaired spontaneous movement. PARK6 is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited disorder, mimicking the clinical picture of PD with(More)
Dendritic spines are sites of synaptic plasticity in the brain and are capable of remodeling their shape and size. However, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that regulate spine morphology and motility. Synaptopodin is a recently described actin-associated protein found in renal podocytes and dendritic spines (Mundel et al. J Cell Biol. [1997](More)
Sympathetic neurons are generated through a succession of differentiation steps that initially lead to noradrenergic neurons innervating different peripheral target tissues. Specific targets, like sweat glands in rodent footpads, induce a change from noradrenergic to cholinergic transmitter phenotype. Here, we show that cytokines acting through the gp 130(More)