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There is an association between dairy product consumption and the incidence of testicular cancer in different countries. To test the hypothesis that milk and dairy products are risk factors, a case-control study was performed in East Anglia, UK. All the cases were men with testicular cancer and for each of the 200 cases there were four controls, two cancer(More)
Since the 1970s nighttime satellite images of the Earth from space have provided a striking illustration of the extent of artificial light. Meanwhile, growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light at night on scientific astronomy, human health, ecological processes and aesthetic enjoyment of the night sky has led to recognition of light pollution(More)
Variations in soleus H-reflex threshold following single conditioning stimuli to tibialis anterior afferents were studied in man by probit analysis of quantal electromyographic responses. The H-reflex threshold was elevated in 6 out of 7 subjects (conditioning-test interval, 2 ms) when conditioning strengths were greater than about 0.70 X tibialis anterior(More)
1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological(More)
Artificial light at night is profoundly altering natural light cycles, particularly as perceived by many organisms, over extensive areas of the globe. This alteration comprises the introduction of light at night at places and times at which it has not previously occurred, and with different spectral signatures. Given the long geological periods for which(More)
A new approach to Variable Size Block Matching is proposed , based on the binary partitioning of blocks. If a particular block does not allow for accurate motion compensation , then it is split into two using the horizontal or vertical line that achieves the maximum reduction in motion compensation error. This method causes partitioning to occur along(More)
Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness(More)
Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak(More)