Thomas David Kocher

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With a standard set of primers directed toward conserved regions, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates. Amplification and direct sequencing were possible using unpurified mtDNA from nanogram samples of fresh(More)
With the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and versatile primers that amplify the whole cytochromeb gene (∼ 1140 bp), we obtained 17 complete gene sequences representing three orders of hoofed mammals (ungulates) and dolphins (cetaceans). The fossil record of some ungulate lineages allowed estimation of the evolutionary rates for various components of the(More)
Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplochromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus(More)
The cost of DNA sequencing continues to fall, which makes it feasible to develop genomic resources for new model species that are well suited for studying questions in evolutionary biology. The thousands of closely related cichlid fishes in the lakes of East Africa are an ideal model system for understanding the genetic basis of vertebrate speciation.(More)
Three statistics (%GC, GC-skew, and AT-skew) can be used to describe the overall patterns of nucleotide composition in DNA sequences. Fourfold degenerate third codon positions from 16 animal mitochondrial genomes were analyzed. The overall composition, as measured by %GC, varies from 3.6 %GC in the honeybee to 47.2 %GC in human mtDNA. Compositional(More)
We amplified and sequenced the mitochondrial control region from 23 species representing six families of teleost fish. The length of this segment is highly variable among even closely related species due to the presence of tandemly repeated sequences and large insertions. The position of the repetitive sequences suggests that they arise during replication(More)
The complete sequence (1047 bp) of the mitochondrially encoded ND2 gene was obtained from 31 species of cichlid fishes to investigate the evolutionary history of the species flocks of the East African lakes. The observed pattern of nucleotide substitution in this sequence is typical of mitochondrial genes, showing a high transition bias and rapid mutational(More)
Lake Malawi contains a flock of >500 species of cichlid fish that have evolved from a common ancestor within the last million years. The rapid diversification of this group has been attributed to morphological adaptation and to sexual selection, but the relative timing and importance of these mechanisms is not known. A phylogeny of the group would help(More)
We constructed a second-generation linkage map of tilapia from the F(2) progeny of an interspecific cross between Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis aureus. The map reported here contains 525 microsatellite and 21 gene-based markers. It spans 1311 cM in 24 linkage groups, for an average marker spacing of 2.4 cM. We detected associations of sex and red(More)
Spectral tuning of visual pigments is typically accomplished through changes in opsin amino acid sequence. Within a given opsin class, changes at a few key sites control wavelength specificity. To investigate known differences in the visual pigment spectral sensitivity of the Lake Malawi cichlids, Metriaclima zebra (368, 488, and 533 nm) and Dimidiochromis(More)