Thomas D. Schneider

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Individual protein binding sites on DNA can be measured in bits of information. This information is related to the free energy of binding by the second law of thermodynamics, but binding kinetics appear to be inaccessible from sequence information since the relative contributions of the on- and off-rates to the binding constant, and hence the free energy,(More)
We present an online server that generates a 3D representation of properties of user-submitted RNA or DNA alignments. The visualized properties are information of single alignment columns, mutual information of two alignment positions as well as the position-specific fraction of gaps. The nucleotide composition of both single columns and column pairs is(More)
The relationship between information and energy is key to understanding biological systems. We can display the information in DNA sequences specifically bound by proteins by using sequence logos, and we can measure the corresponding binding energy. These can be compared by noting that one of the forms of the second law of thermodynamics defines the minimum(More)
Information theory was used to build a promoter model that accounts for the À10, the À35 and the uncertainty of the gap between them on a common scale. Helical face assignment indicated that base À7, rather than À11, of the À10 may be flipping to initiate transcription. We found that the sequence conservation of s 70 binding sites is 6.5 ± 0.1 bits. Some(More)
Fur is a DNA binding protein that represses bacterial iron uptake systems. Eleven footprinted Escherichia coli Fur binding sites were used to create an initial information theory model of Fur binding, which was then refined by adding 13 experimentally confirmed sites. When the refined model was scanned across all available footprinted sequences, sequence(More)
We describe a method for representing the structure of repeating sequences in nucleic-acids, proteins and other texts. A portion of the sequence is presented at the bottom of a CRT screen. Above the sequence is its landscape, which looks like a mountain range. Each mountain corresponds to a subsequence of the sequence. At the peak of every mountain is(More)
An information theory based multiple alignment (\Malign") method was used to align the DNA binding sequences of the OxyR and Fis proteins, whose sequence conservation is so spread out that it is diicult to identify the sites. In the algorithm described here, the information content of the sequences is used as a unique global criterion for the quality of the(More)
An accurate method for locating genes under tumor suppressor p53 control that is based on a well-established mathematical theory and built using naturally occurring, experimentally proven p53 sites is essential in understanding the complete p53 network. We used a molecular information theory approach to create a flexible model for p53 binding. By searching(More)
Molecular information theory was used to create sequence logos and promoter models for eight phages of the T7 group: T7, phiA1122, T3, phiYeO3-12, SP6, K1-5, gh-1 and K11. When these models were used to scan the corresponding genomes, a significant gap in the individual information distribution was observed between functional promoter sites and other(More)