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Motile cells extend a leading edge by assembling a branched network of actin filaments that produces physical force as the polymers grow beneath the plasma membrane. A core set of proteins including actin, Arp2/3 complex, profilin, capping protein, and ADF/cofilin can reconstitute the process in vitro, and mathematical models of the constituent reactions(More)
I measured the rate of elongation at the barbed and pointed ends of actin filaments by electron microscopy with Limulus sperm acrosomal processes as nuclei. With improvements in the mechanics of the assay, it was possible to measure growth rates from 0.05 to 280 s-1. At 22 degrees C in 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM imidazole (pH 7), 0.2 mM ATP with 1 mM EGTA or 50(More)
We review how motile cells regulate actin filament assembly at their leading edge. Activation of cell surface receptors generates signals (including activated Rho family GTPases) that converge on integrating proteins of the WASp family (WASp, N-WASP, and Scar/WAVE). WASP family proteins stimulate Arp2/3 complex to nucleate actin filaments, which grow at a(More)
We used fluorescence microscopy to measure global and local concentrations of 28 cytoskeletal and signaling proteins fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Native promoters controlled the expression of these functional YFP fusion proteins. Fluorescence measured by microscopy or flow cytometry was directly(More)
Microscopy of fluorescent fusion proteins and genetic dependencies show that fission yeast assemble and constrict a cytokinetic contractile ring in a precisely timed, sequential order. More than 90 min prior to separation of the spindle pole bodies (SPB), the anillin-like protein (Mid1p) migrates from the nucleus and specifies a broad band of cortex around(More)
We have isolated a series of overlapping cDNA clones for approximately 95% of the mRNA that encodes CENP-B, the 80-kD human centromere autoantigen recognized by patients with anticentromere antibodies. The cloned sequences encode a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass appropriate for CENP-B. This polypeptide and CENP-B share three non-overlapping(More)
The Arp2/3 complex is a stable assembly of seven protein subunits including two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) and five novel proteins. Previous work showed that this complex binds to the sides of actin filaments and is concentrated at the leading edges of motile cells. Here, we show that Arp2/3 complex purified from Acanthamoeba caps the pointed(More)
Understanding the mechanism of actin polymerization and its regulation by associated proteins requires an assay to monitor polymerization dynamics and filament topology simultaneously. The only assay meeting these criteria is total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Amann and Pollard, 2001; Fujiwara et al., 2002). The fluorescence signal is(More)
The protein actin forms filaments that provide cells with mechanical support and driving forces for movement. Actin contributes to biological processes such as sensing environmental forces, internalizing membrane vesicles, moving over surfaces, and dividing the cell in two. These cellular activities are complex; they depend on interactions of actin monomers(More)