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I measured the rate of elongation at the barbed and pointed ends of actin filaments by electron microscopy with Limulus sperm acrosomal processes as nuclei. With improvements in the mechanics of the assay, it was possible to measure growth rates from 0.05 to 280 s-1. At 22 degrees C in 1 mM MgCl2, 10 mM imidazole (pH 7), 0.2 mM ATP with 1 mM EGTA or 50(More)
Motile cells extend a leading edge by assembling a branched network of actin filaments that produces physical force as the polymers grow beneath the plasma membrane. A core set of proteins including actin, Arp2/3 complex, profilin, capping protein, and ADF/cofilin can reconstitute the process in vitro, and mathematical models of the constituent reactions(More)
We used fluorescence microscopy to measure global and local concentrations of 28 cytoskeletal and signaling proteins fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Native promoters controlled the expression of these functional YFP fusion proteins. Fluorescence measured by microscopy or flow cytometry was directly(More)
Microscopy of fluorescent fusion proteins and genetic dependencies show that fission yeast assemble and constrict a cytokinetic contractile ring in a precisely timed, sequential order. More than 90 min prior to separation of the spindle pole bodies (SPB), the anillin-like protein (Mid1p) migrates from the nucleus and specifies a broad band of cortex around(More)
We used electron microscopy to measure the effects of cytochalasins, phalloidin, and pH on the rates of elongation at the barbed and pointed ends of actin filaments. In the case of the cytochalasins, we compared the effects on ATP- and ADP-actin monomers. Micromolar concentrations of either cytochalasin B (CB) or cytochalasin D (CD) inhibit elongation at(More)
Understanding the mechanism of actin polymerization and its regulation by associated proteins requires an assay to monitor polymerization dynamics and filament topology simultaneously. The only assay meeting these criteria is total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (Amann and Pollard, 2001; Fujiwara et al., 2002). The fluorescence signal is(More)
We have isolated a series of overlapping cDNA clones for approximately 95% of the mRNA that encodes CENP-B, the 80-kD human centromere autoantigen recognized by patients with anticentromere antibodies. The cloned sequences encode a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass appropriate for CENP-B. This polypeptide and CENP-B share three non-overlapping(More)
Formin proteins nucleate actin filaments, remaining processively associated with the fast-growing barbed ends. Although formins possess common features, the diversity of functions and biochemical activities raised the possibility that formins differ in fundamental ways. Further, a recent study suggested that profilin and ATP hydrolysis are both required for(More)
The 70 C-terminal amino acids of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp WA) activate the actin nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex. WASp WA binds both the Arp2/3 complex and actin monomers, but the mechanism by which it activates the Arp2/3 complex is not known. We characterized the effect of WASp WA on actin polymerization in the absence and presence(More)
We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long(More)