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We have designed two taxon-selective primers for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in the nuclear ribosomal repeat unit. These primers, ITS1-F and ITS4-B, were intended to be specific to fungi and basidiomycetes, respectively. We have tested the specificity of these primers against 13 species of ascomycetes, 14 of basidiomycetes, and 15 of(More)
We have investigated colonization strategies by comparing the abundance and frequency of ectomycorrhizal fungal species on roots in a mature Pinus muricata forest with those present as resistant propagules colonizing potted seedlings grown in the same soil samples. Thirty-seven fungal species were distinguished by internal transcribed spacer (ITS)(More)
The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is the formal fungal barcode and in most cases the marker of choice for the exploration of fungal diversity in environmental samples. Two problems are particularly acute in the pursuit of satisfactory taxonomic assignment of newly generated ITS sequences: (i) the lack of an inclusive, reliable(More)
The first DNA sequences obtained from arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi are reported. They were obtained by directly sequencing overlapping amplified fragments of the nuclear genes coding for the small subunit rRNA. These sequences were used to develop a polymerase chain reaction primer (VANS1) that enables the specific amplification of a portion of the(More)
 Colonization of mycorrhizal fungi was studied in a Pinus muricata forest on the coast in California, USA, burned by a stand-replacing wildfire in October 1995. Naturally established field seedlings of P. muricata were harvested 1 yr after the fire. The species composition of the mycorrhizal fungi on these field seedlings was dominated by Rhizopogon(More)
Molecular tools have now been applied for the past 5 years to dissect ectomycorrhizal (EM) community structure, and they have propelled a resurgence in interest in the field. Results from these studies have revealed that: (i) EM communities are impressively diverse and are patchily distributed at a fine scale below ground; (ii) there is a poor(More)
We have investigated the mycorrhizal associations of two nonphotosynthetic orchids from distant tribes within the Orchidaceae. The two orchids were found to associate exclusively with two distinct clades of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous fungi over wide geographic ranges. Yet both orchids retained the internal mycorrhizal structure typical of(More)
Multiple-host fungi are the most frequent and abundant ectomycorrhizal types in a mixed stand of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata)  The ectomycorrhizal fungal associations of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii D. Don) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) were investigated in a mixed forest stand. We identified(More)
While the effects of habitat size and isolation have been successfully studied for macro-organisms, there is currently debate about their relative importance in explaining patterns of microbial species richness. In this study, we examine the species richness of a dominant group of eukaryotic soil microbes, ectomycorrhizal fungi, on 'tree islands' of(More)
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns present in ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure is critical to understanding both the scale and duration of the potential impact these fungi have on the plant community. While recent studies consider the spatial structure of ectomycorrhizal communities, few studies consider how this changes over time.(More)