Thomas Cunningham

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Retinoic acid (RA) signalling has a central role during vertebrate development. RA synthesized in specific locations regulates transcription by interacting with nuclear RA receptors (RARs) bound to RA response elements (RAREs) near target genes. RA was first implicated in signalling on the basis of its teratogenic effects on limb development. Genetic(More)
Here, we generated a genome-scale shRNA library targeting long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in the mouse. We performed an unbiased loss-of-function study in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and identified 20 lincRNAs involved in the maintenance of pluripotency. Among these, TUNA (Tcl1 Upstream Neuron-Associated lincRNA, or megamind) was required(More)
During the early stages of body axis extension, retinoic acid (RA) synthesized in somites by Raldh2 represses caudal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling to limit the tailbud progenitor zone. Excessive RA down-regulates Fgf8 and triggers premature termination of body axis extension, suggesting that endogenous RA may function in normal termination of(More)
Sex-specific initiation of meiosis in the fetal ovary has been suggested to require retinoic acid (RA) for induction of Stra8, with expression of the RA-degrading enzyme Cyp26b1 in fetal testis delaying meiosis until postnatal development. In this study, we investigate Raldh2(-/-) mice lacking RA synthesis and signalling in mesonephros and adjacent gonad(More)
  • Thomas Brade, Sandeep Kumar, +7 authors Gregg Duester
  • Development
  • 2011
Epicardial signaling and Rxra are required for expansion of the ventricular myocardial compact zone. Here, we examine Raldh2(-/-) and Rxra(-/-) mouse embryos to investigate the role of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in this developmental process. The heart phenotypes of Raldh2 and Rxra mutants are very similar and are characterized by a prominent defect in(More)
The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) provides patterning information during vertebrate embryogenesis, but the mechanism through which RA influences limb development is unclear. During patterning of the limb proximodistal axis (upper limb to digits), avian studies suggest that a proximal RA signal generated in the trunk antagonizes a distal fibroblast(More)
Procedures are discussed for selecting closed loop eigenvalues and eigenvectors to achieve desired transient response behavior. The admissible eigenvector subspace is defined with basis vectors calculated using a singular value decomposition. These vectors are optimally combined to 1) minimize the vector element errors between desired and achievable(More)
BACKGROUND Retinoic acid (RA) signaling controls patterning and neuronal differentiation within the hindbrain, but forebrain RA function remains controversial. RA is produced from metabolism of retinol to retinaldehyde by retinol dehydrogenase (RDH), followed by metabolism of retinaldehyde to RA by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH). Previous studies on(More)
In mammalian species, the process of meiosis, in which genes are randomly assorted between parental chromosomes during formation of egg and sperm cells, occurs prenatally in females but postnatally in males. To understand sex-specific differences in signaling mechanisms that underlie fertility, many studies have focused on identifying factors that control(More)
We have demonstrated a direct detection of 100-5000 eV electrons with a back-illuminated boron delta-doped hybrid silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor imager operating in full depletion and a silicon electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (CCD) operating in partial depletion. The delta-doping molecular beam epitaxy increases sensitivity to(More)