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In addition to mediating sister chromatid cohesion during the cell cycle, the cohesin complex associates with CTCF and with active gene regulatory elements to form long-range interactions between its binding sites. Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture had shown that cohesin's main role in interphase genome organization is in mediating interactions(More)
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is crucial for tumour suppression. Senescent cells implement a complex pro-inflammatory response termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP reinforces senescence, activates immune surveillance and paradoxically also has pro-tumorigenic properties. Here, we present evidence that the SASP can also(More)
The Polycomb Group (PcG) of chromatin modifiers regulates pluripotency and differentiation. Mammalian genomes encode multiple homologs of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) components, including five orthologs of the Drosophila Polycomb protein (Cbx2, Cbx4, Cbx6, Cbx7, and Cbx8). We have identified Cbx7 as the primary Polycomb ortholog of PRC1(More)
Metanephric kidney induction critically depends on mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the caudal region of the nephric (or Wolffian) duct. Central to this process, GDNF secreted from the metanephric mesenchyme induces ureter budding by activating the Ret receptor expressed in the nephric duct epithelium. A failure to regulate this pathway is believed to(More)
β-Catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, has been implicated in the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice, but its precise role in this process remains unclear. Here we use a β-catenin gain-of-function mouse model to stabilize β-catenin selectively in either skeletal muscles or motor neurons. We found that β-catenin(More)
If America is to meet the needs of 21 st century learners, we must move away from the norms that governed factory-era schools. The most persistent norm that stands in the way of 21 st century learning is isolated teaching in stand-alone classrooms. Transforming schools into 21 st century learning communities means recognizing that teachers must become(More)
Senescent cells secrete a combination of factors collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP reinforces senescence and activates an immune surveillance response, but it can also show pro-tumorigenic properties and contribute to age-related pathologies. In a drug screen to find new SASP regulators, we uncovered the(More)
Several organs, including the lungs and kidneys, are formed by epithelial tubes whose proper morphogenesis ensures correct function. This is best exemplified by the kidney, where defective establishment or maintenance of tubular diameter results in polycystic kidney disease, a common genetic disorder. Most polycystic kidney disease cases result from(More)
Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2(-/-) ESCs express(More)