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In this paper we present a model in which individuals act in their own best interest, to explain many behaviors associated with cigarette addiction. There are two key features of the model. First, there is an explicit representation of the withdrawal effects experienced when smokers attempt to quit smoking. Second, there is explicit recognition that the(More)
A review of the records and radiographs of 21 newborn infants with necrotizing enterocolitis and 10 control infants was performed to test the significance of the persistent loop sign in necrotizing enterocolitis. Twelve clinical and laboratory variables were compared with the persistent loop sign. None of the control infants and seven of the 21 study(More)
Nursing education has recently begun to shift to a more emancipatory learning format. In accord with Freire, many nursing classrooms currently use dialogical teaching approaches as an integral part of the education process. There are many students unable to share in the process of dialogue because of reticence. Reticence is a personality quality in which a(More)
The term " social Darwinism " owes its currency and many of its connotations to Richard Hofstadter's influential Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915 (SDAT). The post-SDAT meanings of " social Darwinism " are the product of an unresolved Whiggish tension in SDAT: Hofstadter championed economic reform over free markets, but he also condemned(More)
Disagreements among economists rarely breach the academy's walls. The recent minimum-wage controversy is a significant exception. At first glance, all the sound and fury is a puzzle. 1 Minimum-wage effects, at least for current U.S. magnitudes, are small potatoes. 2 Of several more important policy concerns—entitlement reform, health insurance, CPI(More)
Can a rational choice modeling framework help broaden our understanding of anorexia nervosa? This question is interesting because anorexia nervosa is a serious health concern, and because a rational choice approach may shed useful light on a condition which appears to involve " choosing " to be ill. We present a model of weight choice and dieting applicable(More)
" An excess body weight of 30% is associated with an increase of 25% to 42% in mortality, and mortality increases with increasing body weight. " (Kushner 1993). This may be why even small amounts of weight loss can lower the risk of obesity-related illnesses. (Mitchell, 1997 p. 363, citing Goldstein 1992). " Much of the morbidity [disease] associated with(More)