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IMPORTANCE Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary malignancy of the central nervous system in adults. Most patients die within 1 to 2 years of diagnosis. Tumor-treating fields (TTFields) are a locoregionally delivered antimitotic treatment that interferes with cell division and organelle assembly. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of(More)
Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a monoterpene that has been used orally for the treatment of systemic cancer. However, when used orally significant gastrointestinal side effects and lack of overall efficacy were documented. Recently, in a phase II trial in Brazil for the treatment of temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant malignant gliomas, POH was well tolerated when(More)
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor that has shown some promising results as an anti-cancer drug. However, the question arose as to whether or not its COX-2-inhibitory function is required for its anti-tumorigenic properties. We therefore employed dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), which is a(More)
Meningiomas are central nervous system tumors that originate from the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord. Most meningiomas are pathologically benign or atypical, but 3-5% display malignant features. Despite previous studies on benign and atypical meningiomas, the key molecular pathways involved in malignant transformation remain to be(More)
Growing evidence suggests that survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis gene family, is responsible for drug resistance in cancer cells, yet little is known about its role in the endothelial cells of the tumor vasculature. We have previously reported that tumor-associated endothelial cells derived from gliomas (TuBECs) are resistant to anticancer(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a vascular disease that disrupts normal blood flow and leads to serious neurological impairment or death. Aberrant functions of AVM-derived brain endothelial cells (AVM-BECs) are a disease hallmark. Our aim was to use microRNA-18a (miR-18a) as a therapeutic agent to improve AVM-BEC(More)
Poor chemosensitivity and the development of chemoresistance remain major obstacles to successful chemotherapy of malignant gliomas. GRP78 is a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). As a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), GRP78 maintains ER homeostasis, suppresses stress-induced apoptosis, and controls UPR(More)
The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) is known to trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via the accumulation of obsolete and damaged proteins. The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) causes ER stress through a different mechanism (i.e., by causing leakage of calcium from the ER into the cytosol). Each of these two(More)
The tumor vasculature is essential for tumor growth and survival and is a key target for anticancer therapy. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of brain tumor, is highly vascular and contains abnormal vessels, unlike blood vessels in normal brain. Previously, we showed that primary cultures of human brain endothelial cells, derived from blood(More)
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PI) have been shown to have anticancer activity in non-HIV-associated human cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of this effect is unclear. Here, we show that the PIs nelfinavir and atazanavir cause cell death in various malignant glioma cell lines in vitro. The underlying mechanism of this antitumor effect involves(More)