Thomas C. Chen

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The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) is known to trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via the accumulation of obsolete and damaged proteins. The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) causes ER stress through a different mechanism (i.e., by causing leakage of calcium from the ER into the cytosol). Each of these two(More)
A drawback of extensive coxib use for antitumor purposes is the risk of life-threatening side effects that are thought to be a class effect and probably due to the resulting imbalance of eicosanoid levels. 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) is a close structural analogue of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib that lacks cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory(More)
Poor chemosensitivity and the development of chemoresistance remain major obstacles to successful chemotherapy of malignant gliomas. GRP78 is a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). As a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), GRP78 maintains ER homeostasis, suppresses stress-induced apoptosis, and controls UPR(More)
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) celecoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor that has shown some promising results as an anti-cancer drug. However, the question arose as to whether or not its COX-2-inhibitory function is required for its anti-tumorigenic properties. We therefore employed dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), which is a(More)
OBJECT The authors aimed to develop management strategies for the treatment of herniated thoracic discs and to define indications for selection of surgical approaches. Symptomatic thoracic discs requiring surgery are rare. Between 1971 and 1995, 71 patients with 82 herniated thoracic discs were surgically treated by the authors. The treated group included(More)
IMPORTANCE Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary malignancy of the central nervous system in adults. Most patients die within 1 to 2 years of diagnosis. Tumor-treating fields (TTFields) are a locoregionally delivered antimitotic treatment that interferes with cell division and organelle assembly. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of(More)
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE Intracranial hemangioendotheliomas are rare lesions, especially in the pediatric age group. Recognizing hemangioendotheliomas as a differential in intracranial tumors of vascular origin is important; complete excision results in a cure, and medical therapy for those lesions that are not resectable produces long-term survival. (More)
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PI) have been shown to have anticancer activity in non-HIV-associated human cancer cells. The underlying mechanism of this effect is unclear. Here, we show that the PIs nelfinavir and atazanavir cause cell death in various malignant glioma cell lines in vitro. The underlying mechanism of this antitumor effect involves(More)
2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) is a close structural analog of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex®) that lacks COX-2-inhibitory function. However, despite its inability to block COX-2 activity, DMC is able to potently mimic the anti-tumor effects of celecoxib in vitro and in vivo, indicating that both of these drugs are able(More)
Development of functional nanoparticles can be encumbered by unanticipated material properties and biological events, which can affect nanoparticle effectiveness in complex, physiologically relevant systems. Despite the advances in bottom-up nanoengineering and surface chemistry, reductionist functionalization approaches remain inadequate in replicating the(More)