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Hominid brain size increased dramatically in the face of apparently severe associated evolutionary costs. This suggests that increasing brain size must have provided some sort of counterbalancing adaptive benefit. Several recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have indicated that a substantial correlation (mean r = approximately 0.4) exists(More)
The changes in hydrostatic pressure and electrical potentials across vessels in the human vasculature in the presence of a large static magnetic field are estimated to determine the feasibility of in vivo NMR spectroscopy at fields as high as 10 T.A 10-T magnetic field changes the vascular pressure in a model of the human vasculature by less than 0.2%. An(More)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging was employed to study 10 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and seven healthy elderly control subjects. Coronal sections were used to make volumetric measurements of the hippocampus, ventricles, subarachnoid space, and brain parenchyma. The hippocampal volume (normalized relative to the size of the lenticular(More)
Dynamic positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose was used in six patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and seven healthy age-matched control subjects to estimate the kinetic parameters K1*, k2*, and k3* that describe glucose transport and phosphorylation. A high-resolution tomograph was used to acquire brain uptake data in one tomographic(More)
Using an approach that combines gene therapy with aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene and a pro-drug (l-dopa), dopamine, the neurotransmitter involved in Parkinson's disease, can be synthesized and regulated. Striatal neurons infected with the AADC gene by an adeno-associated viral vector can convert peripheral l-dopa to dopamine and may(More)
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the dopamine (DA) transporter tracer, 2 beta-carboxymethoxy-3 beta-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([123I]beta-CIT), were used to determine DA transporter density in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys with varying degrees of parkinsonism. The clinical stage of parkinsonism(More)
A general method for estimating the precision of parameters resulting from the use of various experimental designs (rate of injection and rate of tomographic data collection) in emission tomography studies is proposed. The sensitivity matrix of the study model and an estimate of the statistical uncertainty of the tomographic data are used to compute the(More)
Kinetic analysis of ^Rb dynamic PET data produces quantita tive measures which could be used to evaluate ischemie heart disease. These measures have the potential to generate objec tive comparisons of different patients or the same patient at different times. To achieve this potential, it is essential to deter mine the variability and reproducibility of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Abnormal cutaneous vasodilatory responses to the iontophoresis of vasodilators were previously observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to replicate these observations and further identify peripheral vascular components of AD pathology. METHODS Methacholine chloride (MCh), acetylcholine chloride (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were(More)