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The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is the formal fungal barcode and in most cases the marker of choice for the exploration of fungal diversity in environmental samples. Two problems are particularly acute in the pursuit of satisfactory taxonomic assignment of newly generated ITS sequences: (i) the lack of an inclusive, reliable(More)
 Colonization of mycorrhizal fungi was studied in a Pinus muricata forest on the coast in California, USA, burned by a stand-replacing wildfire in October 1995. Naturally established field seedlings of P. muricata were harvested 1 yr after the fire. The species composition of the mycorrhizal fungi on these field seedlings was dominated by Rhizopogon(More)
Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities are highly diverse at the stand level. To begin to understand what might lead to such diversity, and to improve sampling designs, we investigated the spatial structure of these communities. We used EMF community data from a number of studies carried out in seven mature and one recently fire-initiated forest stand. We(More)
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns present in ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure is critical to understanding both the scale and duration of the potential impact these fungi have on the plant community. While recent studies consider the spatial structure of ectomycorrhizal communities, few studies consider how this changes over time.(More)
Complete nucleotide sequences have been determined for atp6 from Suillus luteus and cox3 from Suillus sinuspaulianus (Boletales, Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota), which code for ATPase subunit 6 and cytochrome oxidase subunit 3, respectively. These sequences were used to design PCR primers for the amplification of partial atp6 and cox3 sequences from other(More)
1 The e€ects of wild®re ash on ectomycorrhizal (EM) associations were investigated by sampling bishop pine (Pinus muricata, D. Don) seedlings from control and ash-removed plots 1.5 years after a severe ®re in a northern Californian P. muricata forest. The below-ground community composition of EM at the site was characterized using molecular techniques(More)
(1019 articles) evolution (864 articles) ecology Articles on similar topics can be found in the following collections Email alerting service here right-hand corner of the article or click Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article-sign up in the box at the top publication. Citations to Advance online articles must include the digital(More)
OBJECTIVE Television and computer game consumption are a powerful influence in the lives of most children. Previous evidence has supported the notion that media exposure could impair a variety of behavioral characteristics. Excessive television viewing and computer game playing have been associated with many psychiatric symptoms, especially emotional and(More)
Pyrosequencing technologies have revolutionized how we describe and compare complex microbial communities. In 454 pyrosequencing data sets, the abundance of reads pertaining to taxa or phylotypes is commonly interpreted as a measure of genic or taxon abundance, useful for quantitative comparisons of community similarity. Potentially systematic biases(More)
In the mycorrhizal symbiosis, plants exchange photosynthates for mineral nutrients acquired by fungi from the soil. This mutualistic arrangement has been subverted by hundreds of mycorrhizal plant species that lack the ability to photosynthesize. The most numerous examples of this behaviour are found in the largest plant family, the Orchidaceae. Although(More)