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The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is the formal fungal barcode and in most cases the marker of choice for the exploration of fungal diversity in environmental samples. Two problems are particularly acute in the pursuit of satisfactory taxonomic assignment of newly generated ITS sequences: (i) the lack of an inclusive, reliable(More)
 Colonization of mycorrhizal fungi was studied in a Pinus muricata forest on the coast in California, USA, burned by a stand-replacing wildfire in October 1995. Naturally established field seedlings of P. muricata were harvested 1 yr after the fire. The species composition of the mycorrhizal fungi on these field seedlings was dominated by Rhizopogon(More)
Multiple-host fungi are the most frequent and abundant ectomycorrhizal types in a mixed stand of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata)  The ectomycorrhizal fungal associations of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii D. Don) and bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) were investigated in a mixed forest stand. We identified(More)
While the effects of habitat size and isolation have been successfully studied for macro-organisms, there is currently debate about their relative importance in explaining patterns of microbial species richness. In this study, we examine the species richness of a dominant group of eukaryotic soil microbes, ectomycorrhizal fungi, on 'tree islands' of(More)
Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities are highly diverse at the stand level. To begin to understand what might lead to such diversity, and to improve sampling designs, we investigated the spatial structure of these communities. We used EMF community data from a number of studies carried out in seven mature and one recently fire-initiated forest stand. We(More)
Understanding spatial and temporal patterns present in ectomycorrhizal fungal community structure is critical to understanding both the scale and duration of the potential impact these fungi have on the plant community. While recent studies consider the spatial structure of ectomycorrhizal communities, few studies consider how this changes over time.(More)
Sarcodes sanguinea is a nonphotosynthetic mycoheterotrophic plant that obtains all of its fixed carbon from neighboring trees through a shared ectomycorrhizal fungus. We studied the spatial structuring of this tripartite symbiosis in a forest where Sarcodes is abundant, and its only fungal and photosynthetic plant associates are Rhizopogon ellenae and Abies(More)
Myco-heterotrophy is one of the longest-studied aspects of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, but there remain many critical, unanswered questions regarding the ecology and physiology of myco-heterotrophic plants and their associated fungi. The vast majority of all myco-heterotrophs studied to date have exhibited specificity towards narrow lineages of fungi, but it(More)
Competition is often considered a fundamental process influencing assemblage structure, yet little is known about competition among ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi. Here, we examine competitive interactions between Rhizopogon occidentalis and Rhizopogon salebrosus in a 6-month microcosm study. Pinus muricata seedlings were grown in three EM treatments: R.(More)
Complete nucleotide sequences have been determined for atp6 from Suillus luteus and cox3 from Suillus sinuspaulianus (Boletales, Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota), which code for ATPase subunit 6 and cytochrome oxidase subunit 3, respectively. These sequences were used to design PCR primers for the amplification of partial atp6 and cox3 sequences from other(More)