Thomas Brocker

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Microglia are crucial for immune responses in the brain. Although their origin from the yolk sac has been recognized for some time, their precise precursors and the transcription program that is used are not known. We found that mouse microglia were derived from primitive c-kit(+) erythromyeloid precursors that were detected in the yolk sac as early as 8 d(More)
In addition to their bridging function between innate and adaptive immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) may also contribute to primary resistance against infection. Here we analyzed the role of DCs during infection with Listeria monocytogenes by performing systemic in vivo depletion of these cells. We showed that CD8alpha(+) DCs were crucial for L. monocytogenes(More)
Lack of immunological tolerance against self-antigens results in autoimmune disorders. During onset of autoimmunity, dendritic cells (DCs) are thought to be critical for priming of self-reactive T cells that have escaped tolerance induction. However, because DCs can also induce T cell tolerance, it remains unclear whether DCs are required under steady-state(More)
Mice rendered deficient in CD28 signaling by the soluble competitor, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule 4-immunoglobulin G1 fusion protein (CTLA4-Ig), fail to upregulate OX40 expression in vivo or form germinal centers after immunization. This is associated with impaired interleukin 4 production and a lack of CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)5 on CD4 T(More)
It is well established that lymphoid dendritic cells (DC) play an important role in the immune system. Beside their role as potent inducers of primary T cell responses, DC seem to play a crucial part as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ "interdigitating cells" in the thymus during thymocyte development. Thymic DC have been implicated in(More)
During human and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection an exceptionally large virus-specific CD8 T cell pool is maintained in the periphery lifelong. This anomalous response is only seen for specific subsets of MCMV-specific CD8 T cells which are referred to as 'inflationary T cells'. How memory CD8 T cell inflation is induced and maintained is unclear,(More)
microRNAs have emerged as a novel layer of regulation of cellular development and function, including cells of the immune system. microRNA expression profiles and function of several microRNAs have been elucidated in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor derived dendritic cells (GM-CSF DC). In this study we determined the microRNA expression(More)
In this report we present a transgenic mouse model in which we targeted gene expression specifically to B-lymphocytes. Using the human CD19 promoter, we expressed major histocompatibility complex class II I-E molecules specifically on B cells of all tissues, but not on other cell types. If only B cells expressed I-E in a class II-deficient background,(More)
The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of dendritic cell (DC) development and function. The kinase mTOR is found in 2 distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In this study, we show that mTORC1 but not mTORC2 is required for epidermal Langerhans cell (LC) homeostasis. Although the initial seeding of the epidermis with LCs is not(More)
The relative contributions of different types of antigen presenting cells to T-cell activation, expansion and induction of effector functions are still not fully understood. In order to evaluate the roles of dendritic versus B cells during these phases of a CD4 T-cell response in vivo, we adoptively transferred major histocompatibility complex class II(More)