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Stress insults intensify fear memory; however, the mechanism(s) facilitating this physiological response is still unclear. Here, we report the molecular, neurophysiological and behavioral findings attributing much of this effect to alternative splicing of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene in hippocampal neurons. As a case study, we explored(More)
Cognitive deficits are among the most devastating changes associated with the aging process. Age-related decrement in performance on learning tasks is correlated with substantial changes in neuronal signal processing in the hippocampus. Here we show that elevated expression of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) of the SK3 type in(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) exerts a key neuroregulatory control on stress responses in various regions of the mammalian brain, including the hippocampus. Using hippocampal slices, extracts, and whole animals, we investigated the effects of human/rat CRF (h/rCRF) on hippocampal neuronal excitability and hippocampus-dependent learning in two mouse(More)
In the present experiments, we characterized the action of human/rat corticotropin-releasing factor (h/rCRF) and acute stress (1 hr of immobilization) on hippocampus-dependent learning and on synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus. We first showed that h/rCRF application and acute stress facilitated (primed) long-term potentiation of population spikes(More)
During early embryogenesis, microglia arise from yolk sac progenitors that populate the developing central nervous system (CNS), but how the tissue-resident macrophages are maintained throughout the organism's lifespan still remains unclear. Here, we describe a system that allows specific, conditional ablation of microglia in adult mice. We found that the(More)
The signal transduction pathway underlying the cAMP-dependent modulation of rat striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) responses was investigated by using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. In oocytes injected with rat striatal poly(A)+ mRNA, activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by forskolin potentiated NMDA responses. Inhibition of(More)
Mature dendritic cells (DCs) are established as unrivaled antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the initiation of immune responses, whereas steady-state DCs induce peripheral T cell tolerance. Using various genetic approaches, we depleted CD11c(+) DCs in mice and induced autoimmune CNS inflammation. Unexpectedly, mice lacking DCs developed aggravated disease(More)
It has become evident recently only that microglia are not only responsible for immunomodulatory functions in the brain but represent vital components of the larger synaptic formation, which also includes pre and postsynaptic neurones as well as astrocytes. Microglia critically contribute to CNS homeostasis by their actions in phagocytosis of cellular(More)
Gal4p-mediated activation of galactose gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally requires both galactose and the activity of Gal3p. Recent evidence suggests that in cells exposed to galactose, Gal3p binds to and inhibits Ga180p, an inhibitor of the transcriptional activator Gal4p. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of novel(More)
The yeast Snf1p kinase is required for normal expression of many genes involved in utilization of non-glucose carbon. Snf1p is known to associate with several proteins. One is Sip1p, a protein that becomes phosphorylated in the presence of Snf1p and thus is a candidate Snf1p kinase substrate. We have isolated the SIP1 gene as a multicopy suppressor of the(More)