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The bacterial MreB actin cytoskeleton is required for cell shape maintenance in most non-spherical organisms. In rod-shaped cells such as Escherichia coli, it typically assembles along the long axis in a spiral-like configuration just underneath the cytoplasmic membrane. How this configuration is controlled and how it helps dictate cell shape is unclear. In(More)
A(2), a capsid protein of RNA phage Qbeta, is also responsible for host lysis. A(2) blocked synthesis of murein precursors in vivo by inhibiting MurA, the catalyst of the committed step of murein biosynthesis. An A(2)-resistance mutation mapped to an exposed surface near the substrate-binding cleft of MurA. Moreover, purified Qbeta virions inhibited(More)
Most bacteria surround themselves with a peptidoglycan (PG) exoskeleton synthesized by polysaccharide polymerases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Because they are the targets of penicillin and related antibiotics, the structure and biochemical functions of the PBPs have been extensively studied. Despite this, we still know surprisingly little(More)
How proteins catalyze morphogenesis is an outstanding question in developmental biology. In bacteria, morphogenesis is intimately linked to remodeling the cell wall exoskeleton. Here, we investigate the mechanisms by which the mother cell engulfs the prospective spore during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. A membrane-anchored protein complex containing(More)
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a polysaccharide matrix that protects bacteria from osmotic lysis. Inhibition of its biogenesis is a proven strategy for killing bacteria with antibiotics. The assembly of PG requires disaccharide-pentapeptide building blocks attached to a polyisoprene lipid carrier called lipid II. Although the stages of lipid II synthesis are known,(More)
Penicillin and related beta-lactams comprise one of our oldest and most widely used antibiotic therapies. These drugs have long been known to target enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that build the bacterial cell wall. Investigating the downstream consequences of target inhibition and how they contribute to the lethal action of these(More)
While there is an agreement that the Fordist accumulation regime has come to an end in the course of the 1970s, there is no agreement on how to characterize the post-Fordist regime (or if a such is already in place). The paper seeks put together various arguments related to financialization (in the broad sense) from a macroeconomic point of view and(More)
The cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria is a formidable barrier that is difficult for antimicrobial drugs to penetrate. Thus, the list of treatments effective against these organisms is small and with the rise of new resistance mechanisms is shrinking rapidly. New therapies to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections are therefore sorely needed. This(More)
Bacterial cells use chromosome-associated division inhibitors to help coordinate the processes of DNA replication and segregation with cytokinesis. SlmA from Escherichia coli, a member of the tetracycline repressor (TetR)-like protein family, is one example of this class of regulator. It blocks the assembly of the bacterial cytokinetic ring by interfering(More)
The differentiation of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis into a dormant spore is among the most well-characterized developmental pathways in biology. Classical genetic screens performed over the past half century identified scores of factors involved in every step of this morphological process. More recently, transcriptional profiling uncovered additional(More)