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Hydroxyl radicals (OH) are a key species in atmospheric photochemistry. In the lower atmosphere, up to ~30% of the primary OH radical production is attributed to the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO), and field observations suggest a large missing source of HONO. We show that soil nitrite can release HONO and explain the reported strength and diurnal(More)
Abiotic release of nitrous acid (HONO) in equilibrium with soil nitrite (NO2(-)) was suggested as an important contributor to the missing source of atmospheric HONO and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The role of total soil-derived HONO in the biogeochemical and atmospheric nitrogen cycles, however, has remained unknown. In laboratory experiments, we found that for(More)
We extend the recent approach of Papadimitrou and Yannakakis that relates the approximation properties of optimization problems to their logical representation. Our work builds on results by Kolaitis and Thakur who sytematically studied the expressibility classes Max n and Max n of maximization problems and showed that they form a short hierarchy of four(More)
the alkylation reaction. We (23) and others (24) observed similar carbon isotope effects in ruthenium-catalyzed C–H insertion reactions, where C–C bond formation has been proposed as the rate-limiting step. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism involving a cationic Ru-alkenyl species 22, which is initially formed from the reaction of 1 with(More)