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Genome-wide association studies identified noncoding SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks encompassing HHEX-IDE and introns of CDKAL1 and FTO [Sladek R, et al. (2007) Nature 445:881-885; Steinthorsdottir V, et al. (2007) Nat. Genet 39:770-775; Frayling TM, et al. (2007) Science 316:889-894]. We show that(More)
Insect genomes contain larger blocks of conserved gene order (microsynteny) than would be expected under a random breakage model of chromosome evolution. We present evidence that microsynteny has been retained to keep large arrays of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs) intact. These arrays span key developmental regulatory genes, forming genomic(More)
Microglia, the resident macrophage precursors of the brain, are necessary for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and activated by a wide range of pathological stimuli. They have a key role in immune and inflammatory responses. Early microglia stem from primitive macrophages, however the transition from early motile forms to the ramified mature resident(More)
We report evidence for a mechanism for the maintenance of long-range conserved synteny across vertebrate genomes. We found the largest mammal-teleost conserved chromosomal segments to be spanned by highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), their developmental regulatory target genes, and phylogenetically and functionally unrelated "bystander" genes.(More)
The timing of commitment and cell-cycle exit within progenitor populations during neurogenesis is a fundamental decision that impacts both the number and identity of neurons produced during development. We show here that microRNA-9 plays a key role in this process through the direct inhibition of targets with antagonistic functions. Across the ventricular(More)
During eye development, retinal progenitors are drawn from a multipotent, proliferative cell population. In Drosophila the maintenance of this cell population requires the function of the TALE-homeodomain transcription factor Hth, although its mechanisms of action are still unknown. Here we investigate whether members of the Meis gene family, the vertebrate(More)
Murine retroviral vectors carrying an enhancer detection cassette were used to generate 95 transgenic lines of fish in which reporter expression is observed in distinct patterns during embryonic development. We mapped 65 insertion sites to the as yet unfinished zebrafish genome sequence. Many integrations map close to previously known developmental genes,(More)
During gastrulation, dramatic movements rearrange cells into three germ layers expanded over the entire embryo [1-3]. In fish, both endoderm and mesoderm are specified as a belt at the embryo margin. Mesodermal layer expansion is achieved through the combination of two directed migrations. The outer ring of precursors moves toward the vegetal pole and(More)
The zebrafish, originally an object of study as an inexpensive and prolific vertebrate embryological model with a plethora of genetic tricks, has over the past decade moved to large-scale chemical mutagenesis and recently came of age as a high throughput transgenic model with a sequenced genome nearing completion. Insertional mutagenesis, gene trapping and(More)
Rapid technological advances over the past decade have moved us closer to a high throughput molecular approach to neurobiology, where we see the merging of neurogenetics, genomics, physiology, imaging and pharmacology. This is the case more in zebrafish than in any other model organism commonly used. Recent improvements in the generation of transgenic(More)