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Using axonal tracers, we characterized the neurons projecting from the brain to the spinal cord as well as the terminal fields of ascending spinal projections in the brain of adult zebrafish with unlesioned or transected spinal cords. Twenty distinct brain nuclei were found to project to the spinal cord. These nuclei were similar to those found in the(More)
The alpha-2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA) modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) modulates morphogenetic cell interactions. PSA is strongly expressed during neural development and generally down-regulated in the adult. However, it remains prominent in some areas of the brain, e.g., the hippocampus. We assayed the functional role(s) of PSA(More)
Illumination changes elicit modifications of thylakoid proteins and reorganization of the photosynthetic machinery. This involves, in the short term, phosphorylation of photosystem II (PSII) and light-harvesting (LHCII) proteins. PSII phosphorylation is thought to be relevant for PSII turnover, whereas LHCII phosphorylation is associated with the relocation(More)
Cotranslational translocation of proteins across or into membranes is a vital process in all kingdoms of life. It requires that the translating ribosome be targeted to the membrane by the signal recognition particle (SRP), an evolutionarily conserved ribonucleoprotein particle. SRP recognizes signal sequences of nascent protein chains emerging from the(More)
Precursor protein targeting toward organellar surfaces is assisted by different cytosolic chaperones. We demonstrate that the chloroplast protein translocon subunit Toc64 is the docking site for Hsp90 affiliated preproteins. Thereby, Hsp90 is recognised by the clamp type TPR domain of Toc64. The subsequent transfer of the preprotein from Toc64 to the major(More)
Mitochondria and chloroplasts import the vast majority of their proteins across two membranes, and use translocases of the outer membrane as an entry gate. These translocases interact with the incoming precursor protein and guiding chaperone factors. Within the translocon, precursor-protein receptors dock to a central component that mediates both transfer(More)
The mitochondrial inner membrane consists of two domains, inner boundary membrane and cristae membrane that are connected by crista junctions. Mitofilin/Fcj1 was reported to be involved in formation of crista junctions, however, different views exist on its function and possible partner proteins. We report that mitofilin plays a dual role. Mitofilin is part(More)
Guidelines for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults advocate methylphenidate as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methylphenidate treatment of adult ADHD and to examine the influence of methods on meta-analytic results. Electronic databases were searched to identify clinical(More)
The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) is the central entry gate for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins. All Tom proteins are also encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized as precursors in the cytosol. The channel-forming beta-barrel protein Tom40 is targeted to mitochondria via Tom receptors and inserted into the outer membrane(More)
Protein biosynthesis, the translation of the genetic code into polypeptides, occurs on ribonucleoprotein particles called ribosomes. Although X-ray structures of bacterial ribosomes are available, high-resolution structures of eukaryotic 80S ribosomes are lacking. Using cryoelectron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction, we have determined the(More)