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Secreted parasitism proteins encoded by parasitism genes expressed in esophageal gland cells mediate infection and parasitism of plants by root-knot nematodes (RKN). Parasitism gene 16D10 encodes a conserved RKN secretory peptide that stimulates root growth and functions as a ligand for a putative plant transcription factor. We used in vitro and in vivo RNA(More)
Cyst nematodes of the genus Heterodera are obligate, sedentary endoparasites that have developed highly evolved relationships with specific host plant species. Successful parasitism involves significant physiological and morphological changes to plant root cells for the formation of specialized feeding cells called syncytia. To better understand the(More)
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop that provides a sustainable source of protein and oil worldwide. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a microscopic roundworm that feeds on the roots of soybean and is a major constraint to soybean production. This nematode causes more than US$1 billion in yield losses annually in the(More)
Parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of phytonematodes encode secretions that control the complex process of plant parasitism. In the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, the parasitome, i.e., the secreted products of parasitism genes, facilitate nematode migration in soybean roots and mediate the modification of root cells into(More)
The syncytium is a unique plant root organ whose differentiation is induced by plant-parasitic cyst nematodes to create a source of nourishment. Syncytium formation involves the redifferentiation and fusion of hundreds of root cells. The underlying regulatory networks that control this unique change of plant cell fate are not understood. Here, we report(More)
Parasitism genes expressed in the esophageal gland cells of root-knot nematodes encode proteins that are secreted into host root cells to transform the recipient cells into enlarged multinucleate feeding cells called giant-cells. Expression of a root-knot nematode parasitism gene which encodes a novel 13-amino-acid secretory peptide in plant tissues(More)
Global analysis of gene expression changes in soybean (Glycine max) and Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode [SCN]) during the course of infection in a compatible interaction was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip soybean genome array. Among 35,611 soybean transcripts monitored, we identified 429 genes that showed statistically significant(More)
Plant-parasitic nematodes are major agricultural pests worldwide and novel approaches to control them are sorely needed. We report the draft genome sequence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, a biotrophic parasite of many crops, including tomato, cotton and coffee. Most of the assembled sequence of this asexually reproducing nematode, totaling(More)
With the availability of microarray technology, the expression profiles of thousands of genes can be monitored simultaneously to help determine the mechanisms of these biological processes. We conducted Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analyses of the Arabidopsis-cyst nematode interaction and employed a statistical procedure to analyze the resultant data,(More)
The current battery of candidate parasitism proteins secreted by nematodes to modify plant tissues for parasitism includes cell-wall-modifying enzymes of potential prokaryotic origin, multiple regulators of host cell cycle and metabolism, proteins that can localize to the plant cell nucleus, potential suppressors of host defense, mimics of plant molecules,(More)