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Annelid systematics and the ingroup relationships of polychaete annelids are matter of ongoing debates in recent analyses. For the investigation of sedentary polychaete relationships a molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 94 sequences of 18S rDNA, including unpublished sequences of 13 polychaete species. The data set was analyzed with(More)
BACKGROUND Polychaetes assigned as Scoloplos armiger (Orbiniidae) show a cosmopolitan distribution and have been encountered in all zoogeographic regions. Sibling S. armiger-like species have been revealed by recent studies using RAPDs and AFLP genetic data. We sequenced an approximately 12 kb fragment of the Scoloplos cf. armiger mitochondrial genome and(More)
BACKGROUND The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In(More)
BACKGROUND Traditional comparative morphological analyses and subsequent three-dimensional reconstructions suffer from a number of drawbacks. This is particularly evident in the case of soft tissue studies that are technically demanding, time-consuming, and often prone to produce artefacts. These problems can partly be overcome by employing non-invasive,(More)
BACKGROUND The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others) and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others). Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea(More)
In contrast to other Bryozoa, members of the subtaxon Phylactolaemata bear a subepithelial cerebral ganglion that resembles a hollow vesicle rather than being compact. In older studies this ganglion was said to originate by an invagination of the pharyngeal epithelium. Unfortunately, documentation for this is fragmentary. In chordates the central nervous(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close(More)
In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup(More)
Nemerteans are undoubtedly members of the Spiralia, although their phylogenetic relationships are still a matter of debate. The apparently acoelomate organization suggests a relationship with the platyhelminths, whereas the blood-vascular system has been interpreted as an equivalent to coelomic cavities of annelids, indicating a close relation between(More)
BACKGROUND The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top-level formal foundational ontology for the biomedical domain. It has been developed with the purpose to serve as an ontologically consistent template for top-level categories of application oriented and domain reference ontologies within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry (OBO). BFO is(More)