Thomas B. Clarkson

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Evidence is contradictory regarding the effects of natural or surgical menopause on "female protection" against coronary artery atherosclerosis. We evaluated atherosclerosis, plasma lipids, blood pressure, and carbohydrate tolerance in 21 ovariectomized and 23 intact female cynomolgus macaques fed a moderately atherogenic diet for 30 months. We also(More)
The past several years have been marked by confusion and controversy concerning whether estrogens are cardioprotective. The issue is of utmost public health importance because coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death among postmenopausal women. Fortunately, a unifying hypothesis has emerged that reproductive stage is a major(More)
Although the beneficial effects of dietary soybean protein compared with animal proteins on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and atherosclerosis have been known for about 50 years, it has been uncertain whether these effects are due to its amino acid concentrations or other components in soybeans. To assess the effect of soybean protein's alcohol-extractable(More)
This study compared the effects of tibolone, a tissue-specific compound for the treatment of climacteric symptoms and the prevention of osteoporosis, with those of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) with and without medroxyprogesterone (MPA) on bone mineral density and coronary atherosclerosis (CAA) of postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys. The groups were(More)
Dietary soy protein has been shown to have several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. The best-documented effect is on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, with reductions of approximately 10% in LDL cholesterol concentrations (somewhat greater for individuals with high pretreatment LDL cholesterol concentrations) and small increases in(More)
There is strong evidence from both human and nonhuman primate studies supporting the conclusion that estrogen deficiency increases the progression of atherosclerosis. More controversial is the conclusion that postmenopausal estrogen replacement inhibits the progression of atherosclerosis. Estrogen treatment of older women (>65 years) with pre-existing(More)
OBJECTIVE Premenopausal women, compared with men, are relatively spared from coronary heart disease and the underlying atherosclerosis. Our purpose has been to elucidate the reason for this difference and to explore the role of behavioral factors in this phenomenon. METHODS Studies employed socially housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) fed an(More)
Although controversy continues, the preponderance of evidence indicates that estrogen replacement therapy favorably influences the risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. It remains uncertain how this effect is mediated and whether the cyclic addition of a progestin may influence adversely an estrogen-related cardioprotective effect. We(More)
We studied the effect of propranolol on the diet-induced coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA) in 30 adult male cynomolgus monkeys living in social groupings of five animals each. Animals in the "treated" segment (n = 15) consumed propranolol, which was mixed into an atherogenic diet. Animals in the "untreated" group (n = 15) consumed only the atherogenic(More)
The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial failed to show cardioprotection by estrogen plus progestin treatment of postmenopausal women. But by design, the WHI population was 10-fold underpowered to show cardioprotection of women starting hormone treatment during the menopausal transition. Thus, observational studies that showed(More)