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Microcystins represent an extraordinarily large family of cyclic heptapeptide toxins that are nonribosomally synthesized by various cyanobacteria. Microcystins specifically inhibit the eukaryotic protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Their outstanding variability makes them particularly useful for studies on the evolution of structure-function relationships in(More)
—To date, few polarimetric weather radars have exhibited the capability to measure full scattering matrices. In contrast, in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) community, considerable experience has been gained in dealing with complete scattering matrices and their statistical behavior. This paper aims to place weather radar parameters in a wider context in(More)
Microcystins are cyanobacterial toxins that represent a serious threat to drinking water and recreational lakes worldwide. Here, we show that microcystin fulfils an important function within cells of its natural producer Microcystis. The microcystin deficient mutant ΔmcyB showed significant changes in the accumulation of proteins, including several enzymes(More)
Mitochondrial genes in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana are transcribed by two phage-type RNA polymerases encoded in the nucleus. Little is known about cis-elements that are recognized by these enzymes and mediate the transcription of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial genome. Here, 30 transcription initiation sites of 12 mitochondrial genes and gene clusters have(More)
Most chloroplast mRNAs are processed from larger precursors. Several mechanisms have been proposed to mediate these processing events, including site-specific cleavage and the stalling of exonucleases by RNA structures. A protein barrier mechanism was proposed based on analysis of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein PPR10: PPR10 binds two(More)
BACKGROUND The gene expression system of chloroplasts is far more complex than that of their cyanobacterial progenitor. This gain in complexity affects in particular RNA metabolism, specifically the transcription and maturation of RNA. Mature chloroplast RNA is generated by a plethora of nuclear-encoded proteins acquired or recruited during plant evolution,(More)
SIGNAL is an innovative earth exploration mission proposal with the main objective to estimate accurately and repeatedly topography and topographic changes associated with mass change or other dynamic effects on glaciers, ice caps and polar ice sheets. Elevation measurements are complemented with glacier velocity measurements, providing valuable additional(More)
— This paper discusses the implementation of an end-to-end simulator for the BIOMASS mission. An overview of the system architecture is provided along with a functional description of the modules that comprise the simulator. I. INTRODUCTION Biomass is a biophysical property of vegetation that relates to the amount of carbon stored in the terrestrial(More)
—Future operational weather radars are likely to implement hybrid polarization, an operating mode that involves transmitting 45° slant polarization and receiving the horizontal and vertical components of the backscattered field. In this work, the degree of polarization at slant send is theoretically considered and experimentally evaluated from fully(More)
Modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) of bacteria provide an enormous reservoir of natural chemical diversity. Studying natural biocombinatorics may aid in the development of concepts for experimental design of genes for the biosynthesis of new bioactive compounds. Here we address the question of how the modularity of biosynthetic enzymes and the prevalence(More)