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Three main streams of Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), i.e. probabilistic optimization algorithms based on the model of natural evolution, are compared with each other in this article: Evolution Strategies (ESs), Evolutionary Programming (EP), and Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The comparison is performed with respect to certain characteristic components of EAs,(More)
| Evolutionary computation has started to receive signiicant attention during the last decade, although the origins can be traced back to the late 1950s. This article surveys the history as well as the current state of this rapidly growing eld. We describe the purpose, the general structure and the working principles of diierent approaches , including(More)
The optimization of a single bit string by means of iterated mutation and selection of the best (a (1+1)-Genetic Algorithm) is discussed with respect to three simple tness functions: The counting ones problem, a standard binary encoded integer, and a Gray coded integer optimization problem. A mutation rate schedule that is optimal with respect to the(More)
|Due to its independence of the actual search space and its impact on the exploration-exploitation tradeoo, selection is an important operator in any kind of Evolutionary Algorithm. In this paper, all important selection operators are discussed and quantitatively compared with respect to their selective pressure. The comparison clariies that only a few(More)
[11] A. Frévile and G. Plateau. Hard 0-1 multiknapsack testprob-lems for size reduction methods. [26] I. Rechenberg. Evolutionsstrategie: Optimierung technis-cher Systeme nach Prinzipien der biologischen Evolution. Some guidelines for genetic algorithms with penalty functions. Figure 1: Some representative courses of evolution for the multiple knapsack(More)
This paper presents various Metamodel–Assisted Evolution Strategies which reduce the computational cost of optimisation problems involving time–consuming function evaluations. The metamodel is built using previously evaluated solutions in the search space and utilized to predict the fitness of new candidate solutions. In addition to previous works by the(More)