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Although now over 100 years old, the classification of climate originally formulated by Wladimir Köppen and modified by his collaborators and successors, is still in widespread use. It is widely used in teaching school and undergraduate courses on climate. It is also still in regular use by researchers across a range of disciplines as a basis for climatic(More)
Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find(More)
A mathematical model for terrestrial running is presented, based on a leg with the properties of a simple spring. Experimental force-platform evidence is reviewed justifying the formulation of the model. The governing differential equations are given in dimensionless form to make the results representative of animals of all body sizes. The dimensionless(More)
Using a linear mass-spring model of the body and leg (T. A. McMahon and G. C. Cheng. J. Biomech. 23: 65-78, 1990), we present experimental observations of human running under simulated low gravity and an analysis of these experiments. The purpose of the study was to investigate how the spring properties of the leg are adjusted to different levels of(More)
Many parameters of gait and performance, including stride frequency, stride length, maximum speed, and rate of O2 uptake are experimentally found to be power-law functions of body weight in running quadrupeds. All of these parameters are reasonably easy to measure except maximum speed, where the question arises whether one means top sprinting speed or top(More)
Mammals use the elastic components in their legs (principally tendons, ligaments, and muscles) to run economically, while maintaining consistent support mechanics across various surfaces. To examine how leg stiffness and metabolic cost are affected by changes in substrate stiffness, we built experimental platforms with adjustable stiffness to fit on a(More)
Using a protocol designed to reduce experimental artifacts associated with the conventional compression test for trabecular bone, we performed in vitro mechanical testing on bovine tibial trabecular bone to obtain accurate descriptions of the elastic and yield behaviors. Reduced-section cylindrical specimens were preconditioned for eight tension-compression(More)