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In this review, we examine the evidence for mammographic density as an independent risk factor for breast cancer, describe the risk prediction models that have incorporated density, and discuss the current and future implications of using mammographic density in clinical practice. Mammographic density is a consistent and strong risk factor for breast cancer(More)
Evidence on dietary risk factors for ovarian cancer is inconsistent, but some studies have suggested positive associations with dietary fat, lactose, and cholesterol and negative associations with green and yellow vegetable intake. By using information from the Iowa Women's Health Study, the authors investigated the association of epithelial ovarian cancer(More)
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BACKGROUND Recent clinical guidelines on the health risks of obesity use body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and waist circumference, but the waist-hip ratio may provide independent information. METHODS To assess the joint and relative associations of BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip(More)
Gravidity and parity have strong inverse relations with endometrial cancer occurrence. To determine whether gravidity masks an association with other reproductive factors, the authors analyzed data from a cohort study of 24,848 postmenopausal Iowa women aged 55-69 years who were cancer free at baseline in 1986 and who had not had a hysterectomy. During 5(More)
Mammographic breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer but whether breast density is a general marker of susceptibility or is specific to the location of the eventual cancer is unknown. A study of 372 incident breast cancer cases and 713 matched controls was conducted within the Mayo Clinic mammography screening practice. Mammograms on(More)
  • P A Thomas, D A Kirschmann, +4 authors M J Hendrix
  • 1999
Pathology observational reports and experimental data suggest that keratin and vimentin intermediate filament (IF) coexpression in breast cancer confers a more aggressive "interconverted" phenotype, expressing both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. In this study, we extended previous observations by measuring the expression of keratin and vimentin, in(More)
Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, yet few studies have evaluated density trends, and associated factors, over time. The authors retrieved and digitized mammograms (> or =1 per woman) imaged in 1990-2003 to evaluate percent density (PD) in the Minnesota Breast Cancer Family cohort. Multivariable-adjusted, mixed-effects,(More)
Dysfunction in enzymes involved in one-carbon (1-C) metabolism can lead to increased chromosomal strand breaking and abnormal methylation patterns, which are both associated with cancer risk. Availability of 1-C units may modify risk. We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 21 genes in the 1-C transfer pathway among 829(More)
BACKGROUND Intrauterine exposure to high levels of endogenous estrogens has been hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer. Because estrogens and other pregnancy hormones are substantially elevated in twin pregnancies, and possibly more so in dizygotic twin pregnancies, we evaluated the association between aspects of twin membership (i.e.,(More)