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BACKGROUND Little is known about causes of death among children seriously affected by the AIDS epidemic in southern African countries. METHODS Autopsies were performed on 47 children 1 month to 13 years of age in Francistown, Botswana, between July 1997 and July 1998. RESULTS Median age was 10 months; 68% were HIV-positive. The leading cause of death(More)
Little is known about patterns of tuberculosis (TB) transmission among populations in developing countries with high rates of TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To examine patterns of TB transmission in such a setting, we performed a population-based DNA fingerprinting study among TB patients in Botswana. Between January 1997 and July(More)
SETTING The prevalence of substandard anti-tuberculosis drugs is unknown. To maximize the effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control efforts, simple, inexpensive drug quality screening methods are needed. DESIGN Isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) single- and fixed-dose combination (FDC) formulations were collected from selected TB programs and pharmacies(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from patients with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana. DESIGN Transmission was studied in 210 children aged <10 years (contacts) of unknown HIV status exposed to 51 adults with tuberculosis (index cases), including 41/49 (83.7%) with(More)
To exclude tuberculosis, WHO/UNAIDS recommends considering medical history, symptom screen, and chest radiograph before starting tuberculosis prevention in people infected with HIV. The value of a chest radiograph for this purpose is unknown. We prospectively assessed 935 HIV-infected outpatients seeking isoniazid preventive therapy. Of 935 patients, 692(More)
BACKGROUND In April 1994, a passenger with infectious multi-drug resistant tuberculosis traveled on commercial-airline flights from Honolulu to Chicago and from Chicago to Baltimore and returned one month later. We sought to determine whether she had infected any of her contacts on this extensive trip. METHODS Passengers and crew were identified from(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about causes of death in countries of southern Africa seriously affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. METHODS After obtaining informed consent, autopsies were performed on 128 mainly hospitalised adults in Francistown, Botswana, between July 1997 and June 1998. Criteria for case selection included those who died before a diagnosis(More)
SETTING Botswana, southern Africa, where the tuberculosis (TB) case rate increased by 120% from 1989 to 1996 in spite of a decade of implementation of the directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS) strategy. OBJECTIVE To determine prevalence of and risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis in an epidemic setting. DESIGN Systematic national random(More)